New section to focus on the link between open hardware, distributed manufacturing, and ecological/sustainability concerns
or, as they say so well in French:
* "Pour un mode de production, libre, durable et solidaire".
i.e. for a free, fair and sustainable mode of production.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Citations
- 2.1 Ruben Nelson: Contemporary Civilizational Change needs to be global, conscious, and relatively fast
- 2.2 Jose Ramos on Cosmo-Localization
- 2.3 On the Value Revolution that is taking place
- 2.4 The inherent sustainability of distributed manufacturing
- 2.5 A green economy is a knowledge-intensive economy
- 3 Visualizations
- 4 Key Resources
Commons-Based Peer Production and the associated 'open source stack', are a key ingredient for our sustainable future. Here's a summary of the arguments:
- design in market entities entails planned obsolescence as market goods have to remain scarce; open design communities inherently design for sustainability, interoperability, inclusion, etc ..
- shared design is crucial for a circular economy, which can't really develop easily with privatized knowledge
- mutualization of intrastructure, through a well understood Sharing Economy based on Communitarian Provisioning, has huge benefits in terms of the re-use of idle resources
- the Cosmo-Localization of production allows for a relocalization of production based on expressed local need, and avoids huge transportation expenditures as well as the systematic over-production of supply-driven mass markets
Some introductory material:
- Presentation at Degrowth 2014, video: Michel Bauwens on The Transition to a Sustainable Commons Society
On the concept of the ReMaker Society, by Stephen Quilley, Jason Hawreliak, Kaitlin Kish:
The model of the reMaker society is potentially significant for two reasons.
Firstly, decentralised, participatory ‘low overhead’ production models make it conceivable that at least some of the material culture that defines modern societies might be sustained and reproduced outside of the integrated formal economy that currently straddles the globe. By substituting for this globally integrated market, a series of networked and more embedded (in Polanyi’s sense) bioregional economies, the reMaker model would not obviate the cycling of growth, collapse and reorganization phases. But it would eliminate the possibility of large scale systemic collapse, whilst i.) reducing the local and regional ecological impacts of growth and ii.) the social consequences of periodic retrenchment.
Secondly, the reMaker model would allow alternative structures of political economy to emerge in tandem with more communitarian models of care, welfare and the provision of local public goods. Re-embedding economic activity and livelihood could conceivably see the re-emergence of the gift economy and reciprocity as important ‘planes of integration’ (Polanyi, 1968) and a reduced emphasis on mechanisms of both market and state. Examples might include public involvement in hospital care, familial and community home-schooling or community involvement in the repair and maintenance of public infrastructure. Because strategies for social emancipation have historically been so entwined with the expansion of both market and state in highly complex societies, such re-embedding scenarios raise difficult questions. Nevertheless, the reMaker society intimates a hitherto unacknowledged ‘adjacent possible’ i.e. a combination of state, (formal) market and (informal) communitarian reciprocity that could conceivably deliver modern technology and levels of innovation at a much lower ecological cost, and in the context of a much less individualistic post-consumer society." (http://peerproduction.net/issues/issue-9-alternative-internets/peer-reviewed-papers/finding-an-alternate-route-towards-open-eco-cyclical-and-distributed-production/)
Ruben Nelson: Contemporary Civilizational Change needs to be global, conscious, and relatively fast
“In the past, all transitions in the forms of civilization were slow, local/regional, exclusive, optional and unconscious. Today, we are faced by the need to undertake a GT in our dominant form of civilization that, in contrast, must be fast (by any historic standard), scalable to the whole planet, inclusive of all 7.4 billion of us, recognized as required and conscious. This last requirement also implies that today we must not only be conscious about change at every scale, but must develop a capacity for meta-consciousness about change at every scale.” (http://www.greattransition.org/forum/gti-discussions/178-journey-to-earthland/reply/2125)
Jose Ramos on Cosmo-Localization
"Cosmo-Localization describes the dynamic potentials of the globally distributed knowledge commons in conjunction with emerging capacity for localized production of value. The imperative to create economically and ecologically resilient communities is driving initiatives for ‘re-localization’. Yet, such efforts for re-localization need to be put in the context of new technologies, national policy, transnational knowledge regimes and the wider global knowledge commons." (http://actionforesight.net/cosmo-localization/)
On the Value Revolution that is taking place
"Under the radar of mass media and mainstream academia, a value revolution is taking place that is promising to transform humanity’s very notions of wealth and economic development. Expressed in an explosion of both traditional academic indicators and innovative new quality-of-life and sustainability measures, this value revolution is not simply revealing previously invisible “full costs” of production, but also “redefining progress” more positively—from quantity to quality. Economically, our ways of growing and distributing food, providing & using energy, building buildings, making and exchanging clothing, etc. are being reexamined not only to reduce their negative impacts, but also to more fully express their social and ecological potentials. They are geared not simply to the sustainability of communities and ecosystems, but to their regeneration—to make economic development, as eco-architect Bill McDonough would say, “not just less bad, but good.”
- Brian Milani 
The inherent sustainability of distributed manufacturing
"Personal-scale manufacturing machines ... enable small manufacturers to make one product at a time in response to customer demand, and scale up production as the product sells. ... Regular people and small manufacturing companies that lack investment capital will be able to set up low investment, “start small and scale up as it goes” businesses. With local, onsite production, long-distance shipping of the completed item is no longer necessary. Products and parts can be made only when they’re needed, saving on storage space and the costs of maintaining un-used goods and products."
- Hod Lipson & Melba Kurman 
A green economy is a knowledge-intensive economy
"A green economy is the ultimate knowledge-based economy: by definition, it replaces materials and energy with human intelligence. Both EPR and the non-governmental certification systems are based on the life-cycle approach and, increasingly, rigorous life-cycle assessment (LCA). But qualitative development involves far more than simply new values and information; it also demands a market and regulatory revolution, entailing a gradual—but fundamental—shift in the form, content and drivers of economic development. For a growing number of green thinkers, the main elements of this restructuring come down to (1) an increasing focus on producing services rather than products, and (2) reorganization of production and consumption in closed-loops, either integrated with, or imitating, ecosystems—what’s been called “economic biomimicry.” This cannot be achieved simply by beefing up environmental protection against nasty brown markets and production processes, but by a transformation that increasingly establishes social and ecological values as the prime driving forces of a new kind of market."
- Brian Milani 
- Graph One: Corporate versus Open-Source Technics. Source
- Graph Two: The Modern Industrial System vs Open Source Production. Source
- Finding an Alternate Route: Towards Open, Eco-cyclical, and Distributed Production. By Stephen Quilley, Jason Hawreliak, Kaitlin Kish. Journal of Peer Production, Issue #9: Alternative Internets, 2016
- PhD Thesis: Building Materials in a Green Economy: Community-Based Strategies for Dematerialization. Brian Milani. OISE-UT AECDCP / U. of T. Institute for Environmental Studies 
- Anticipated Environmental Sustainability of Personal Fabrication. By Cindy Kohtala and Sampsa Hyysalo. Journal of Cleaner Production, Issue 99, 2015, pp. 333-344 
- Addressing Sustainability in Research on Distributed Production: An integrated literature review. By Cindy Kohtala. Journal of Cleaner Production
- World History as a Thermodynamic Process; longer text for background: Mutation of Economics into the Fifth Integral-Arational Structure of Consciousness
- The Role of Technology in Current Ecological Problems. Interview of Alf Hornborg interviewed by Adam Robbert & JP Hayes.
- Information Technology is Good for the Environment and for the Climate. Joe Romm. vs. How Sustainable is Digital Fabrication?
- Paul Mobbs: 1) The “Limits to Technology”: Ecological Boundaries of the Information Age.:  2) Practical Guide to Sustainable IT.
- Thermodynamic Perspectives on the Role of Technology in the Circular Economy: A systems and thermodynamics perspective on technology in the circular economy. By Crelis F. Rammelt and Phillip Crisp
P2P Foundation Authors
- Why is Open Hardware Inherently Sustainable? Michel Bauwens; however, the current practices still fall short of the promise: Potential of Open Design for Eco-Efficient Product Development. But, there is hope: 10 Open Hardware Projects to Save the Earth.
- Vasilis Kostakis, Kostas Latoufis, Minas Liarokapis, Michel Bauwens. "The convergence of digital commons with local manufacturing from a degrowth perspective: Two illustrative cases". Journal of Cleaner Production. http://www.p2plab.gr/en/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Journal-of-Cleaner-Production.pdf
- Kostakis, Vasilis, Niaros, Vasilis, Dafermos, George, and Bauwens, Michel. 2015. “Design Global, Manufacture Local: Exploring the Contours of an Emerging Productive Model”. Futures, 73, 126-135. http://www.p2plab.gr/el/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Futures.pdf
- Kostakis, Vasilis, Roos, Andreas and Bauwens, Michel. 2015. “Towards a Political Ecology of the Digital Economy: Socio-environmental Implications of Two Value Models”. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions. http://www.p2plab.gr/en/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Env-Innov-and-Soc-Trans.pdf
- Kostakis, Vasilis and Papachristou, Marios. 2014. “Commons-based peer production and digital fabrication: The case of a RepRap-based, Lego-built 3D printing-milling machine”. Telematics and Informatics, 31, 434-443. http://www.p2plab.gr/en/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/TI.pdf
- Kostakis, Vasilis, Fountouklis, Michail and Drechsler, Wolfgang. 2013. “Peer Production and Desktop Manufacturing: The Case of the Helix_T Wind Turbine Project”. Science, Technology and Human Values, 38(6), 773-800. http://www.p2plab.gr/en/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/STHV1.pdf
- David MacKay . Sustainable Energy – Without the Hot Air.
(calculats whether the UK could transfer to a 100% renewable energy economy. His answer: 'yes, but'.)
- Vaclav Smil . Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization. : dematerialization works but is systematically offset by growth imperative.
Key Research Projects
- The Thermodynamic Efficiencies of Peer Production. A project of the Blaqswan's Collective in collaboration with the P2P Foundation.
- Evaluating Open Hardware From an Ecological Economics Perspective. A project of the P2P Lab
- Phygital Research Project (P2P Lab)
- Three times as many raw materials are used to export traded goods than are used in their manufacture: Cost of Transportation vs Cost of Manufacturing
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Regenerative Development (empty)
Pages in category "Sustainable Manufacturing"
The following 149 pages are in this category, out of 149 total.
- Ca La Fou
- Carbon Farming
- Carla Cargo
- Center for Community Production
- Circular City Open Labs
- Circulation of the Commons
- Climate Beneficial Production and Accounting
- Community-Based Strategies for Dematerialization
- Convergence of Digital Commons with Local Manufacturing from a Degrowth Perspective:
- Cost of Transportation vs Cost of Manufacturing
- Eco-Digital Platforms
- Economic and Energy Consumption Aspects of Additive Manufacturing
- Ellen McArthur Foundation on Circular Economies
- Energy Consumption of Distributed Manufactured Goods
- Environmentally Extended Input-Output Model
- Ethical and Sustainable Electronics
- Ethical Filament Foundation
- Evaluating Open Hardware From an Ecological Economics Perspective
- Evaluation of Potential Fair Trade Standards for an Ethical 3-D Printing Filament
- One Percent for Regenerative Fiber Systems Fund
- Open Bug Farms
- Open Data Catalogue on Garbage and Recycling
- Open Micro Methanization
- Open Source Circular Economy
- Open Source Circular Economy Days
- Open Source Ecology
- Open Source Ecology Wind Turbine
- Open Source Technology in Agricultural Production
- Open Source Wind Turbine
- Open Source Wind Turbine Prototyping Platform
- Open Water Filter
- OSCE Days
- OWi Project
- P2P Foundation Project on the Thermo-Dynamic Efficiences of Commons-Based Peer Production
- Pangloss Labs
- Peak Stuff
- Phygital Research Project
- POC Foundation
- Post-Couture Collective
- Precious Plastic
- Productive Cities Network
- Proof Of Concept 21
- Proof Of Concept Documentary on Building a Open Source Circular Economy
- Tatiana Glad
- Technology and Degrowth
- Terror Management Theory
- Thanh Nghiem
- Thermodynamic Efficiencies of Peer Production
- Thomas Rau on the Circular Economy
- Towards a Political Ecology of the Digital Economy
- Towards a Social-Ecological Understanding of Sustainable Venturing
- Towards Open, Eco-cyclical, and Distributed Production
- Transparent Supply Chains