Introduction to the P2P Foundation Wiki Material about Sharing

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This is a section to encourage the sharing of resources and the creation of Use Communities.

The P2P Foundation fully supports the Shareable initiative. And we listen to the Sharing Song by Jack Johnson.

Our favourite options for a true Sharing Economy are: Communitarian Provisioning, Platform Cooperativism and Data Cooperatives.

Our favourite group: Ouishare


For a more radical approach that involves stronger elements of communal living, see the work of A. Allen Butcher on Communal Economics, and his useful typology of Production Sharing and Communal Distribution.

Policy and other recommendations:

On the Importance of Distinguishing Sharing Private Property vs. Commons vs. Public Property

From Natalia Fernández, translated by Steve Herrick:

"Municipal goods and services are not “commons,” and rental vehicle from a company-owed fleet is not “collaborative.” Confusing things only can lead to disillusionment and disappointment.

Anglo culture and the absence of public policies in the US tended to distort the terms “commons” and collaborative consumption/”sharing.” Municipal bicycle or car-sharing services, even though they may be shared in the sense that there is one vehicle and many users, don’t create any kind of commons, nor are they collaborative consumption. They are mere extensions of transportation services, no different from other public utilities when they are publicly owned, or from a car-rental company when privately owned.

The “commons,” that which is communal, is goods that belong to a community, a group of real people, a demos, that manages it jointly and directly. Public property is something else: it is State property.

But, isn’t public property, by definition, the common property of all citizens? Wouldn’t municipal public goods be, by definition, “communal?” No. Publicly-owned goods are managed through specific institutions that decide how they are used and where the profits go. Citizens don’t take part directly in management and decisions about these goods and their use. They are not communal.

The municipal bus business of any city can be a publicly-owned good, property of city hall, or of the wider region. But it is not a communal good. The classic example of communal goods would be the common lands of many towns, collectively owned by their users, who directly manage their use. The transportation business could be part of the urban commons if it was, simply, a cooperative of users. The “sharing economy” or collaborative consumption exists when the users share use of goods, while maintaining private ownership. If city hall or a company makes cars or bicycles publicly available (charging a rental fee) there’s no collaborative consumption. “Bike sharing” would be when you share the use of your bike(s) with others through a system of use management. If no one shares their personal property, there’s no “sharing” at all. In most municipal “biking” or “car-sharing” services, the bikes belong to a company or city hall itself. There is no collaborative consumption, but rather, hourly rental." (

Related Wiki sections


Transformational Sharing Economy vs Transactional Sharing Economy

Monica Bernardi:

"Neal Gorenflo, founder of Shareable, explains the variety of practices stressing the existence of two types of sharing economy, not to be confused: a Transformational Sharing Economy and a Transactional Sharing Economy (Scancarello and Mainieri, 2015).

The first one wishes for solid and enduring social connections, based on mutual support. Inside the corporations/communities, the resource management or the management of the corporation itself is collective and common, and the goal is to produce benefits for the whole community. Users are the reason why, and the corporation exists to answer to their needs. In the transformative corporations, citizens are called to work together in a cooperative way. It is not that easy like a touch on a smartphone, but with time and commitment, it really allows for a better reality. The second choice fuels precarious employment and reinforces the existing inequalities, in line with the neoliberal market and its processes. These kinds of corporations are real commodities, managed by few, with the aim of obtaining the best results possible, where the users are just means to sell the business, and access to the services is possible with just one touch on the smartphone’s screen. This is the case with AirBnb and Uber. Some authors, such as Kallis (2014) consider these companies part of the rental economy rather than the sharing economy, where a rental economy is based on the rent of goods and services through proprietary and commercial technological platforms, far from the original meaning of sharing, a kind of adaptation of the capitalistic paradigm to the new economic trends. In general, the debate about the necessity of distinguishing between the on-demand economy, other forms of the economy that consider rent and profit first, and more genuine forms of the collaborative and sharing economy is growing." ([email protected])


Engineering Abundance by Sharing Surplus

Marina Gorbis:

"Not everyone has a large house to trade or a large sum of money to donate but look around you -- we have excess of stuff, talent, ideas, information--in our homes , in our communities, and in our organizations. We are over-producing and under-utilizing resources all over the place. Witness the recent example of clothing retailers like H&M deliberately mutilating and tossing unsold clothes in the trash. Many experts in retail concede that the practice is not uncommon--for some unfathomable "economic" reason it makes more sense to destroy clothes than to release them into a local community. The situation is even worse when it comes to food. We over-produce and waste a lot of it. According to the USDA, just over a quarter of America's food -- about 25.9 million tons -- gets thrown into the garbage can every year. University of Arizona estimates that the number is closer to 50 percent. The country's supermarkets, restaurants and convenience stores alone throw out 27 million tons between them every year (representing $30 billion of wasted food). This is why the U.N. World Food Program says the total food surplus of the U.S. alone could satisfy "every empty stomach" in Africa. How about empty stomachs in our own communities? The list goes on an on. We have surplus of space--many commercial buildings, schools, corporate and government spaces are underutilized, while many small organizations and individuals are struggling to find spaces for their work. We also have excess of talent--musicians, artists, designers, educated unemployed people, young and old--needing audiences, venues to work in, or contribute ideas to." (

Michel Bauwens on the Importance of Transaction Costs

“Different phenomena have led to a big underlying paradigm shift in favor of sharing. Networked internets have dramatically decreased the coordination and transaction costs, making access to shared resources often cheaper than ownership of an individual resource. You keep all the advantages but at dramatically lower cost. This changes the perspective from individual scarcity-driven behaviour (I buy this because I may need it), to abundance-driven behaviour in which there is a confidence that access to a resource will be possible without owning it.” (

Economic Value

Rachel Botsman, author of the book, What's Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption, expects the consumer peer-to-peer rental market to become a $26 billion industry." (

"Uniiverse has collated some startling figures detailing the opportunity space of ‘idlesourcing’:

  • There are one billion cars on the road, 740 million of them carrying only one person, and 470m would be willing to carpool.
  • There are 460 million homes in the developed world, with on average $3,000 worth of unused items available; and 69% of households would share these items if they could earn some money from it
  • 300 million people in the developed world spend more than 20% of their waking hours alone and are looking for connection
  • of the 2 billion internet-connected people in the world, 78% declare that their online experience has made them more amenable to sharing in the ‘real world’ (this conversion from online to offline sharing behaviour is confirmed by the Latitude Research survey). 80% of the 7 billion people on the planet today would declare that sharing makes them more happy. This means 5.7b people would be ready for a sharing economy."


See also the video: The Social Basis for a Sharing Economy

Careful, read also this:


How to distinguish the real transformational sharing economy from the transactional sharing economy

Janelle Orsi:

"It's time to talk about how the sharing economy can build itself on true sharing. In this video, Janelle Orsi talks about how companies can build in:

1. Shared Control

2. Shared Responsibility for the Common Good

3. Shared Earnings

4. Shared Capitalization

5. Shared Information, and

6. Shared Efforts"

There is no such thing as a sharing economy

Matthew Yglesias:

"This is a dumb term and it deserves to die.

It started, as best I can tell, with Zipcar which predates most of these companies and from the get-go described its product as "car sharing." The main problem with that description is that it wasn't car sharing. Zipcar was not and is not a service that facilitates the formation of automobile co-ops in which multiple households combine to collectively own and share a fleet of vehicles. That would be an interesting idea for a business, but it's not Zipcar's business. The way Zipcar's business works is that a firm owns a fleet of vehicles and then offers them as short-term rentals to its customers. They made up the word "car sharing" because the rental car business was well-established already and Zipcar wanted to rent cars in a different kind of way, so they needed a way to signal to people that it wasn't a head-to-head competitor with Hertz.

But of course things metastasized. So when cities started creating municipally chartered short-term bicycle rental entities, those were known as "bike sharing." Things really got nasty when AirBNB launched a short-term rental platform for residential housing, because both the housing and hotel sectors are heavily regulated and taxed in different kinds of ways. Wouldn't it be better to just say we're sharing rather than running a hotel? Tom Friedman's latest sharing economy column is about a website that seems to be a platform for selling used clothing.

These are mostly great businesses. The sale of used durable goods has always played a role in the economy, and insofar as the Internet lower search and transaction costs its role will grow. For rentals I think the case is even stronger. Traditionally, in order to make renting viable the goods-available-for-rent had to be stockpiled in huge centralized depots that were easily discoverable. Thanks to digitial technology, it's now feasible to do what Zipcar does and disperse the cars throughout the city. Since the cars are dispersed, they're more convenient. But none of this is sharing." (


  • The Mesh Business directory: "Mesh businesses leverage data and social networks to enable people to share goods and services efficiently and conveniently/ There are already thousands of these businesses—in transportation, fashion, food, real estate, travel, finance, entertainment and many other categories." [2]
  • Key examples compiled by Rachel Botsman and her team:
  1. Product Service Systems: Pay for the benefit of using a product without needing to own the product outright. Disrupting traditional industries based on models of individual private ownership.
  2. Redistribution Markets: Redistribute used or pre-owned goods from where they are not needed to somewhere or someone where they are.
  3. Collaborative Lifestyles: It’s not just physical goods that can be shared, swapped, and bartered. People with similar interests are banding together to share and exchange less tangible assets such as time, space, skills, and money.

See the following compilations on our wiki:

and also:

  1. Global Resource Exchange Groups and Localized Exchange Communities
  2. Peer to Peer Exchanges and P2P Exchange Infrastructure Projects
  3. Low Cost Groups

Lisa Gansky's directory entries in the Mesh:

Sharing Directory

  1. accessories & gifts
  2. books & writing ,
  3. business & innovation , (Book Commons
  4. careers, jobs & vocation ,
  5. creativity, media & the arts ,
  6. diy ,
  7. education ,
  8. energy , Sharing Energy
  9. entertainment ,
  10. farming & gardening ,
  11. fashion & clothing ,
  12. finance & economics ,
  13. food & drink ,
  14. government ,
  15. health & fitness ,
  16. home improvement ,
  17. kids' stuff ,
  18. marketing services ,
  19. mobility ,
  20. natural resources & environment ,
  21. real estate ,
  22. seasonal & holidays ,
  23. technology & data ,
  24. travel ,
  25. upcycling & recycling ,



  • BMW DriveNow ;
  • EDAG Light Car Sharing Concept ;
  • Sobi Social Bicycle System
  • Getaround ( Getaround, started in 2009, bases its business model on the fact that cars are idle 92 percent of the time.
  • RelayRides‎ : p2p carsharing
  • Weeels‎, to transform traditional taxis (and any private car) into nodes in networked “social transit” systems, starting with a free smartphone app.
  • Go Car Share‎ a market place for empty car seats, a ‘social’ journey sharing website that is built around Facebook. We help people share car journeys
  • Park At My House‎ , aims to provide a convenient and cheaper parking alternative
  • Bike shares, like car shares, are growing in popularity, with Denver B-cycle one of the programs leading the way. It has 52 stations around the city for pickup and drop-off. A day pass is $6. Similar city programs are coming soon to the Bay Area and possibly L.A. County.
  • Click&Boat : p2p boat sharing

Neighbors Goods Commons

  • Hey, Neighbor!. This social network is bringing back the old-fashioned spirit of lending for free the stuff gathering dust in your garage. You can also swap favors, like watering plants while on vacation.
  • NeighborGoods‎ : what can I share with my neighbors
  • Rentoid‎: a market place where people can rent things to and from each other using the internet
  • Frents‎ , a social network for things. Members display personal belongings on virtual shelves and define how they are can be shared, either with a circle of friends or the local community
  • SnapGoods‎ , aims to… make borrowing, renting, and trying a standard consumer option and practice.
  • Rentcycle‎ , platform/portal for renting, connecting consumers to rental businesses
  • Bid and Borrow‎ , a website that promotes sustainable re-use through the sharing of existing resources.
  • Sharehood


  1. One Block Off the Grid‎

Sharing Skills and Services

  1. Task Rabbit‎, seeking paid help from neighbors
  2. Skillshare‎‎, a community marketplace to learn anything from anyone, using its own accreditation system

Art and Culture

  1. Studio Share‎ aims to… dramatically lower the cost of a photo shoot or audio production by making community-owned photo and audio rentals as easy as possible.
  1. CameraLends connects local photographers to each other for peer-to-peer camera gear rentals.


  • Airbnb Founded in 2008 in San Francisco, Airbnb lets people with space connect to those who are looking for it. The company handles all transactions, and charges hosts 3 percent of each accepted reservation. Guests pay a 6 to 12 percent booking fee.
  1. Crashpadder, ‎ an accommodation network that enables guests to save, hosts to earn and everyone to make new friends.
  2. Tourboarding, ‎
  3. Experiences with strangers. If you love sailing and own a sailboat but are feeling pinched financially or miss sailing with others, you could offer an “experience” for sale via Vayable. You set the price. S.F. and L.A. only for now;


  1. Loosecubes‎: Offices put empty cubes up on Loosecubes so the cubeless can rent the workspaces on an as-needed basis. Find empty spaces at 200 locations in the West.


  • Crushpad ( The perfect solution for enophiles who crave the experience of making their own wine, but can’t afford to spring for their own vineyard.
  1. Eggs. Eggzy connects people who want fresh eggs but don’t have backyard chickens to locals who do. Punch in your zip code to find nearby eggs, then pick them up. Available in many cities;
  2. A cider press. Millers’ Equipment & Rent-All stocks equipment that people in the community can rent for a day or a week at a time. A cider press costs $60 per day or $180 per week in the Seattle area.
  3. Buy a share in a pig from a farmer who can house, feed, and send the animal to slaughter. You get part of the meat. Shares sell out quickly and are distant cousins of community-supported agriculture, where members share a yield from the farm for a fee.

Key Initiatives

Sharing Cities and Regions

Key Resources

In French:

Key Articles

  • Popular intro by Fast Company magazine with profiles of pioneers [3]

Policy, Law, Regulation

How To

How-to articles from Shareable magazines [5]:

See: How To Share Guides

See also:

  2. and

Key Books

"Tom Slee argues the so-called sharing economy damages development, extends harsh free-market practices into previously protected areas of our lives, and presents the opportunity for a few people to make fortunes by damaging communities and pushing vulnerable individuals to take on unsustainable risk."

* The classics on the emergence of Collaborative Consumption:

  1. The Mesh: Why the Future of Business is Sharing Lisa Gansky. Portfolio / Penguin Group, FALL 2010
  2. What's Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption, by Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers (Fall, HarperCollins), 2010

See also:

“ As the sharing economy continues to grow and move into the mainstream, it is butting up against laws and regulations that are outdated, but nonetheless in place. With her book, Practicing Law in the Sharing Economy, “sharing lawyer” Janelle Orsi addresses the legal challenges that are emerging, offering guidance on drafting agreements, structuring entities, employment regulations, intellectual property and more.” (

  • Share or Die: Voices of the Get Lost Generation in the Age of Crisis, edited by Malcolm Harris and Neal Gorenflo (New Society Publishers):

“ A “collection of messages from the front lines,” Share or Die gives voice to the young people that are working, in a world facing vast economic and environmental issues, to create a new economic order with sharing at its core. Edited by Shareable publisher Neal Gorenflo and Shareable contributor Malcolm Harris, the book is a glimpse into a re-envisioned, shareable future.” (

  • Networked: The New Social Operating System, by Lee Rainie and Barry Wellman (MIT Press):

“A study of our “perpetual connectedness,” Networked illustrates, through extensive evidence, that far from isolating us, the new social operating system liberates us from restrictive groups and challenges us to develop better networking skills. Doing so, Rainie and Wellman argue, leads to expanded opportunities for learning, problem solving and personal.” (

Owning Our Future: The Emerging Ownership Revolution,by Marjorie Kelly (Berrett-Koehler): “ Our current economic arrangement of maximizing profit for a few while income disparity grows wider every day is the root of much injustice and many communities around the world are creating alternative economic models. Reporting from a farmer-owned dairy in Wisconsin, an employee-owned department store in London, a community-owned wind facility in Massachusetts and more, Kelly explores what makes these designs work and why they may hold a key to a more just future.” (


Sampled from a more comprehensive list compiled by Mira Luna for Shareable [7]:

  1. Ann Arbor Sharing Economy
  2. Sharing City Berlin
  3. Boulder Sharing Economy
  4. Sharing City Graz
  5. Helsinki Commons
  6. Mappa Alternativa di Napoli

Key Movements

From a directory of Sharing Movements by Cat Johnson [8]:


  1. Consumo Colaborativo‎, Spain
  2. KoKonsum, Germany
  3. People Who Share‎, UK
  4. Unstash, Toronto, Canada


  1. Collaborative Chats‎, San Francisco, USA
  2. Let’s Collaborate‎, NYC
  3. Share Exchange‎, Santa Rosa, USA
  4. Share Tompkins‎, Ithaca, NY
  5. Shared Squared, NYC
  6. Sharers of San Francisco‎

Key Statistics

  • The emerging market of the sharing economy, valued at around 600 billion dollars a year (PWC, 2014), (cited by

[email protected])

Key Videos

  1. Rachel Botsman on What's Mine is Yours [9] ; Rachel Botsman on Collaborative Consumption (TedX Sydney)
  2. The Collaborative Consumption Groundswell Video ; [10] answers the question: What is the current size of the sharing economy?
  3. Lisa Gansky on the Shift to the Sharing Economy: [11]= Lisa Gansky, author of The Mesh, "expresses the shift to a sharing economy in a very elegant way. [12]
  4. The Commons Video replaces the Story of Stuff with the Story of Sharing! [13]
  5. What are the Commons, "does a good job of defining the commons and explaining why they're essential, whether digital or physical". [14]

Research on the Sharing Economy

Original compilation of collaborative consumption research by Juho Makkonen of Ouishare Europe.




Relational/motivational issues


  • Two dimensions of reputation: designing a trust-and-recognition-enhancing reputation system for an online community (Juho Makkonen, 2010 - Master's thesis, Aalto University - also explore online communities not related to sharing economy, but the main case example is kassi/sharetribe)


Rachel Botsman's Structure of the Sharing Economy

Redistribution :

- Big Market Places ( craigslist , ebay , gumtree )

- Free / Gift Exchanges ( freecycle , giftflow , freally , exchango )

- Swap sites for books ( paperbackswap , bookmooch )

- Swapsites for baby goods and toys ( toyswap , thredyp , swapitbaby , tauschteddy )

- Clothing Swaps ( swapstyme , the clothing exchange , 99 dresses , poshmark )

- Swap sites for media ( dvd's , books , games ) ( swap , dig n'swap , netcycler , swapsity )

- Neighborhood Marketplaces ( zaarly , garage sale trail )

Assets and Services :

- Car sharing ( zipcar , goget , whizzcar , autoshare , stattauto , autolibre )

- Car Sharing ( big automobile brands ) ( bwn drivenow , volkswagen quicqr , Peugeot MU , Daimler Car2Go )

- Peer to Peer Car Sharing ( Whipcar , relayrised , drivemy car rentals , getarand , tamyca )

- Bike Sharing ( Velib , Bixi , Barclays Cycle Hire , B-Cycle , Call-A-Bike , Cyclocity )

- Ride Sharing ( Zimride , Nuride , Liftshare , Jayride , Gocarshare , Carpooling )

- Solarpower ( Solarcity , Solar Century , Pretasol , One Block Off the Grid )

- Toy Rental ( Babyplays , Rent-a-Toy )

- Textbook Rental ( Chegg , Campusbookrentals , Zookal , Bookrenter )

- Art Rental ( , Artiscle , Turningart )

- Fashionrental ( Bag Borrow or Steal , Fashion Hier , Dress Vault , Rent the Runway )

- Movies ( Netflix , Quickflix , Lovefilm )

- General Online Rental ( Getable , Anyhire , Snapgoods , Neighborgoods , Dogvacay )

- Peer-to-Peer Rental ( Zilok , Rentoid , Ecomodo , Hire Things , Rentstuff )

- Neighborhood Rental ( Share Some Sugar , Neighbor Row , The Sharehood , Frents )

Collaborative Lifestyles

- Storage Networks ( Storepod , Sharemystorage , Spaceout )

- Social Food Networks ( Gobble , Grubwithus , Eatwithme , wok+wine )

- Peer-to-Peer Car Sharing ( Tamyca , Buzzcar , Nachbarschaftsauto , autonetzer , snappcar )

- Errand and Task Networks ( Zaarly , Airrun , Mytaskanger , Gigwalk , Airtasker , Taskrunner )

- Neighborhood Support ( Neighborhoodgoods, Share some sugar , Streetbank , Toolzdo )

- Parkingspots ( Parkatmyhouse , Parkmcirca , Parkonmydrive )

- Sharedstudios / Workshops ( 3rd space studios , Techshop )

- Skill Sharing ( Brooklyn Skill Share , Tradeschool , Skillshare , Weteachme )

- Gardens ( Urbangardenshare , landshare , yardshare )

- Crowdfunding ( Startsomegood , Pozible , Crowdcube , Catarse )

- Bartering ( Ourgoods , Itex , Bartercard , Tourboarding )

- Taxi Sharing ( Taxi2 , Taxistop , Weeels )

- Peer-to-Peer Travel ( Airbnb , Roomoroama , One Fine Stay , Bed and Fed , 9 Flats )

- Social Currencies ( Ven , The Liquidity Network , Time Banks , Letsystems )

- Social Lending ( Zopa , Prosper , The Lending Club )

- Co-working Space Finders ( desknearme , deskwanted , opendesks , desksurfing )

- Co-working Spaces ( networkcity , studiomates , beesoffice , coloft )