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This is a new section to collate our resources related to place, geography, both physical and digital (i.e. cyber-mapping, etc...)


  • We conceive of Land and Food as a Commons:
  1. Land as Commons
  2. Food as Common and Community

Steve Bosserman sees Localization occuring in four key domains:

1) affordable / green construction, 2) 100-mile agricultural production, 3) renewable / distributed energy generation 4) community governance / capacity building.

We support

  1. the 10 principles outlined in Jonathan Raper's Digital Geography Manifesto.
  2. Grassroots Mapping: a series of participatory mapping projects involving communities in cartographic dispute [1]
  3. the Open Street Map project

(status of this section: We have only ported the 6 first columns of our Encyclopedia, from A to G at present.)


Mapping is never neutral

"While online maps may for some time have been considered as neutral pieces of technology, geographers, sociologists, and historians are now treating them as cultural-based artifacts with an ideological bias that inherently accompany their design. In other words, maps are being reinterpreted as structures of power: they distribute authority between different individuals or groups of people. According to J. Brian Harley, cartographer and historian, ‘political power is most effectively reproduced, communicated, and experienced throughout maps’. In general, this power can be related to the production of cartographic documents and the systems that enable it, to map literacy, to conditions of authorship, and to the very nature of the political statements that are made by these new pieces of technology. Maps can indeed be understood as a kind of language used to mediate a particular view of our world."

- Gustavo Velho Diogo [2]

Why Localization is Inevitable in a Resource-scarce World

"It is an article of faith that global trade will be an ever-growing presence in the world. Yet this belief rests on shaky foundations. Global trade depends on cheap, long-distance freight transportation. Freight costs will rise with climate change, the end of cheap oil, and policies to mitigate these two challenges.

At first, the increase in freight costs will be bad news for developed and developing nations alike but, as adjustments in the patterns of trade occur, the result is likely to be decreased outsourcing with more manufacturing and food production jobs in North America and the European Union. The pattern of trade will change as increasing transportation costs outweigh traditional sources of comparative advantage, such as lower wages. The new geography of trade will not result from policy or treaties but from the impact of changing environmental conditions due to the growth of the human economy. ... Many goods will be manufactured closer to where they are consumed, as supply chains become more regional and local."

- Fred Curtis, David Ehrenfeld [3]

Towards the hyperlocal

"The decisive paradigm from the age of mass production was culminating in the claim "think global - act local" - the view of international brands and enterprises, conquering markets worldwide and batteling with salesforces for the dominance in each region on a global scale.

The emerging paradigm from the coming age of connectivity shows a totally opposite point of view, expressed by individuals with the claim "think global-act hyperlocal"."

- Reinhard Knobelspies [4]

Policy Recommendations

On Localization

  1. Measures for Relocalization and Reruralization, 2 times four essential policy principles, as proposed by Mariarosa Dalla Costa

Key Resources

Watch this superb lecture: Michael Goodchild on Volunteer Mapping's Role in Geospatial Science, “From Community Mapping to Critical Spatial Thinking” :: NSF’s Distinguished Lecture series [5]

Note: "In the mapping and geospatial worlds, you might want to check out the OSgeo (open source geospatial) community, as well as the far more bureacratic GEOSS project (Global Earth Observation System of Systems), a global inter-governmental collaboration for sharing scientific data, mostly from satellites, but also other kinds of sensors." - Miles Fidelman, NextNet, May 2011)

Key Articles

Digital geography for human emancipation:

  1. A Digital Geography Manifesto: 10 principles
  2. The Emergence of Populist Cartography and Countermapping. Jeremy W. Crampton on how cartography has escaped the elites.
  3. Creating maps for everyone and network effects for the data driving them. Sean Gorman
  4. The rise of the sensor citizen – community mapping projects and locative media. Anne Galloway
  5. Essay: Dan Hill. The Street as Platform: explores a cross-section of all the ways that urban environments have become suffused with data.
  6. Introduction to Open Geoscience. Three-part series by Lance McKee in Earthzine.
  7. Can Participatory Mapping Save the Commons?


  1. Mapping in a Participatory Culture: new geographic media literacy project
  2. Linked Geographies. Stefaan Verhulst on what happens when maps meets hyperlinking.
  3. The geospatial web – blending physical and virtual spaces. Arno Scharl
  4. Collapsing Geography: on Second Life, Innovation, and the Future of National Power. By Cory Ondrejka.
  5. Web mapping vs. GIS. Andrew Turner.
  6. Nainamo, the capital of Google Earth, at,8599,1720932,00.html

On localization:

  1. Flaws in the theory of globalization
  2. David Harvey on the Fetishism of the Local and Horizontal


  1. How to Map the New Economy in Your City By Mira Luna

Key Blogs

  1. Making Maps
  2. Straight To The Point: Location based technology, local content services, and new developments in local media and journalism, including lots of geo and mapping info.
  3. The Metacarta blog
  4. The Y!Geo blog for Yahoo mapping developments
  5. The Google Earth blog
  6. The Digital Geographer: All things digital and geographic. By Jonathan Raper.
  7. Mapperz: Map and GIS News finding blog...

Key Books

  1. The Birth of Territory. By Stuart Elden. Univ. of Chicago Press, 2013: " provides a detailed account of the emergence of territory within Western political thought". [6]
  2. Critique of the Metageography of Continents: Book: The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography. By Martin W. Lewis and Kären Wigen. University of California Press, 1997: "In this thoughtful and engaging critique, geographer Martin W. Lewis and historian Kären Wigen reexamine the basic geographical divisions we take for granted, and challenge the unconscious spatial frameworks that govern the way we perceive the world."
  3. Introduction to Neogeography. Andrew Turner.
  4. Making Maps. John Krygier and Denis Wood.
  5. Rethinking the Power of Maps. By Denis Wood,John Fels and John Krygier

Key Conferences

  1. State of the Map: annual conferences for the Open Street Map communities
  2. Where 2.0

Key projects

  1. Open Street Map

P2P Action Research Groups:

  1. Hackitectura‎ ;
  2. Counter Cartographies Collective

Key Resources

  1. Open Source GIS: an attempt to build a complete index of Open Source / Free GIS related software projects
  2. Aether reviews the geography of media
  3. Issue 21 of Receiver magazine discusses geowebbing, i.e. personally annotating physical places with digital markers
  4. The March 2009 issue of OSBR is dedicated to geospatial developments


Pages in category "Geography"

The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 490 total.

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