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= " interfacing between different viewpoints (and in fact disciplines of science) to establish a principle of collaboration (synergy) by which the expertise of either standpoint can be combined, and enhanced, to bring out new understanding. " [1]



"Donna *Harraway’s replacement term for Maturana and Varela’s concept of *autopoiesis, which she objects to on the grounds that no ‘thing’ makes itself. It is worth noting that this is something of a misreading of Maturana and Varela, since they do not claim that the autopoietic machine, as they call it, produces itself. It would be more accurate to say that autopoiesis refers to a process of self-reproduction." (

2. Autopoiesis and Sympoiesis:

"Autopoietic (self-producing) systems are autonomous units with self-defined boundaries that tend to be centrally controlled, homeostatic, and predictable. Sympoietic (collectively-producing) systems do not have self-defined spatial or temporal boundaries. Information and control are distributed among components. The systems are evolutionary and have the potential for surprising change. Since they cannot be identified by boundaries, sympoietic systems must be identified by the self-organising factors involved in their generation." M. Beth L. Dempster (source, quote via fb, provided by Daryl Taylor, 4/2015)