Designing the Microbial Research Commons

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* Book: Designing the Microbial Research Commons: Proceedings of an International Workshop. National Academies Press, 2011.



"Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results.

We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications?

With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology."

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[1] 1. Introduction — Cathy Wu.

[2] 2. Microbiology in the 21st Century — Joan W. Bennett.

[3] 3. Breaking Anti-Commons Constraints on Global Scientific Research: Some New Moves in “Legal Jujitsu” — Paul A. David.

[4] 4. An Industry Perspective: Development of an MTA Harmonious with a Microbial Research Commons — Stephen J. McCorma.

[5] 5. Developing Country Perspective: Microbial Research Commons Including Viruses — Ashok Kolaskar.

[6] 6. A Compensatory Liability Regime to Promote the Exchange of Microbial Genetic Resources for Research and Benefit Sharing — Jerome H. Reichman.

[7] 7. The Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection: Germplasm Accessions and Research Programs — Cletus P. Kurtzman.

[8] 8. American Type Culture Collection: A Model for Biological Materials Resource Management — Frank Simione.

[9] 9. Contracting to Preserve Open Science: Lessons for a Microbial Research Commons — Peter Lee.

[10] 10. Designing the Digital Commons in Microbiology—Moving from Restrictive Dissemination of Publicly Funded Knowledge to Open Knowledge Environments: A Case Study in Microbiology — Paul Uhlir.

[11] 11. The Web-Enabled Research Commons: Applications, Goals, and Trends — Thinh Nguyen.

[12] 12. Comments on Designing the Microbial Research Commons: Digital Knowledge Resources — Katherine Strandburg.

[13] 13. Toward a Biomedical Research Commons: A View from the National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health — Jerry Sheehan.

[14] 14. Academic Publications — Fred A. Rainey.

[15] 15. StrainInfo: Reducing Microbial Data Entropy — Peter Dawyndt.

[16] 16. Research and Applications in Energy and Environment — Daniel Drell.

[17] 17. Large Scale Microbial Ecology Cyberinfrastructure — Paul Gilna.

[18] 18. Proposal for a Microbial Semi-Commons: Perspectives from the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups — Flora Katz.

[19] 19. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources — Shakeel Bhatti.

[20] 20. Microbial Commons: Governing Complex Knowledge Assets — Minna Allarakhia.

[21] 21. Digital Research: Microbial Genomics — Nikos Kyrpides.

[22] 22. Accessing Microbiological Data: A User’s Perspective — Mark Segal.

[23] 23. The Microbial Commons: Journals and Professional Societies — Samuel Kaplan.

[24] 24. Microbial Commons: Overview of the Governance Considerations — A Framework for Discussion — Tom Dedeurwaerdere.

[25] 25. Institutional Design and Governance in the Microbial Research Commons — Charlotte Hess.

[26] 26. International Developments: A Context for the Creation of a Microbiology Commons — Anita Eisenstadt.

[27] 27. Options for Governing the Microbial Commons — Michael Halewood.

[28] 28. Access and Benefit Sharing under the CBD and Access to Materials for Research — Stefan Jungcurt.

[29] 29. Closing Observations — Cathy Wu.