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et un avertissement de la part de Robert Cringely: Nous avons atteint un stade où, dans le cadre de l'adaptation de notre culture à l'informatique et aux technologies de la communication, les générations les plus jeunes ont monté en puissance et sont prêtes et impatientes de rejeter ces institutions que la plupart d'entre nous continuent à considérer essentielles, centrales, voire immortelles. Elles sont prêtes à jeter nos écoles.. [1](eng)

Les trois aspects clefs de l'Éducation Ouverte sont: 1) le Contenu Ouvert; 2) l'Instruction Ouverte; 3) l'Évaluation Ouverte

EDUCAUSE définit(eng) l'ouverture de la manière suivante :

   * Standards ouverts et inter-opérabilité
   * Développement communautaire ouvert de logiciels 
   * Accès ouvert aux données de la recherche
   * Communications ouvertes dans le cadre scolaire
   * Accès ouvert au contenu et possibilité de le modifier

Si l'éducation est vouée à être transformée, nous nous devons de nous attaquer simultanéent à ses sept aspects [2] (eng):

Les Sept C de l'Éducation.

  • Curriculum : Comment le contenu des programmes est choisi, validé, organisé et présenté.
  • Contenu: The material supporting any learning objective. Ironically, content used to be considered the most important part of an educational model – thus the proliferation of tests. But in the age of Internet, content has gone to being the least important.
  • Coaching: The individual attention helping each student overcome their individual weaknesses, answer specific questions, and leverage their individual strengths, as well as provide motivation.
  • "Customisation" (INdividualisation) : La capacité à reconnaître et à correspondre aux besoins de chaque individu.
  • Communauté : Un groupe de pairs qui rend l'apprentissage à la fois plus efficace et plus enthousiasmant.
  • Crédits: Preuve et documentation montrant qu'un certain niveau de compétence a été atteint (aussi censés fournir de la motivation).
  • day Care: The ability to house students for a specific time.


This section is about learning, knowledge exchange and management, education, epistemology (ways of knowing) and related developments.

The P2P Foundation supports the Cape Town Declaration on Open Education.

The pages below are maintained by Michel Bauwens.

This most remarkable video says it all!!

  1. Miles Berry: What Would an Open Source Education Look Like?
  2. For a good introduction see John Heron on facilitation and the revolution in learning
  3. We need Open Access to the means of instruction. David Wiley.
  4. Terry Anderson on the Three Levels of Aggregation of Learners; See the full essay on Networked modes of learning
  5. Tera Vaden et al. on the Three Metaphors of Learning; See the book: Wikiworld
  6. The Learn Nodes concept of Judy Breck may well represent the future of informal learning
  7. Three Generations of Education. Derek W. Keats and J. Philipp Schmidt [3]


  1. Read also this essay on the Teaching to Learning Paradigm Shift by Robert B. Barr and John Tagg.
  2. Here's an extraordinary mind-blowing scenario map, with linked resources on the Forces Affecting the Furure of Education
  3. Check out the pioneering work of Alfie Kohn on democratic learning communities.

Key Topics: Open Accreditation ; Open Education, Open Education Commons ; Open Educational Resources, Open Courseware Initiatives, Open Textbooks

Follow the most recent trends through this Delicious P2P Learning tag.

Key P2P Learning Theories

  1. George Siemens, and his Connectivist learning theory, is one of the scholars most intensely constructing what I would call a 'peer to peer learning theory'.
  2. David Cormier on Rhizomatic Education
  3. Terry Anderson (and Jon Dron): Three Social Sources of Learning: maps out three different types of “many” in social learning environments[4]
  4. Josef Jacotot's Pedagogy of Equality: Nina Powers presents ‘On Ignorant Schoolmasters’, Jacques Rancière, published as Chapter 1 of Jacques Rancière, Education, Truth, Emancipation, by Charles Bingham and Gert Biesta (London, Continuum: 2010), pp. 1-24.

Key P2P Educational Initiatives

Five examples of extension-style schooling:

  1. Unclasses
  2. University of the People
  3. Skillsharing
  4. Supercool School
  5. School of Everything

See here for more Informal Learning Projects

Some Citations

Short Citations

"digital technologies are now providing educators and students with tools of study, as opposed to tools of instruction" [5]

when everyone has free and open access to the means of instruction, we can expect to see large scale experimentation and innovation.

- David Wiley [6]

More Citations about Peer to Peer Learning

Read here about:

  1. Why schools need to open up to peer-based learning models
  2. About the Learning 2.0 approach
  3. How Education is diverging from schooling
  4. What is the power of peer teaching
  5. Who are the new knowledge leaders
  6. How we are evolving from learning "just in case" to "learning on demand"
  7. Teachers are world-changers

Key Resources

Key Articles

  1. Stephen Downes: An introduction to connective knowledge; The Threefold Opening of Education
  2. Key essay by Yochai Benkler: Common Wisdom: Peer Production of Educational Materials [7]
  3. Ilkka Tuomi: Learning in the Age of Networked Intelligence
  4. George Siemens: Learning and Knowing in Networks: Changing roles for Educators and Designers; towards Networked-Directed Learning
  5. From Expert led to peer driven social learning : 6 p2p learning trends summarized by Nancy White and Josien Kapma
  6. Henry Jenkins: Learning by Remixing
  7. JOHN WILLINSKY. The Educational Implications of Networks
  8. Dave Cormier: The Community as Curriculum

Food for Thought

A bit of history to start:

Kai Hammermeister:

  1. The Structure and Silence of the Cognitariat, Christopher Newfield (3 types of knowledge workers, 3 types of sharply unequal education)
  2. Miles Berry: What Does an Open Source Approach to Education Look Like
  3. George Siemens: The New Forms of Connectivist Education
  4. Is Compulsory Education needed in a Gift Economy
  5. Towards a Place for Study in a World of Instruction
  6. In Transcending the Individual Human Mind through Collaborative Design, Ernesto Arias et al. explain why peer to peer learning design is essential in complex societies.
  7. 10 Reasons why schools should use free software
  8. Assessment 2.0: modernizing assessment
  9. Commons-based Peer Production and Education. J. Philipp Schmidt (P2PU.org). Short essay for the Free Culture Research Workshop. Harvard University, 23 October 2009, which touches on the issue of Reputation and Open Accreditation [8]

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  1. Overview of recent technological developments (Web 2.0) and how these participatory technologies could be used for teaching and learning, by Bryan Alexander, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 41, no. 2 (March/April 2006): 32–44 [9].
  2. 'Coming of Age' [10] is an introduction to teachers on how they can use the 'new World Wide Web'.
  3. Article by Ulises Mejias A Nomad's Guide to Learning and Social Software
  4. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation
  5. Using Wiki's in Education
  6. CC Learn, using Creative Commons licensing for education
  7. Finding Open Educational Resources. By Esther Wojcicki.
  8. Guide for Participating in the International Open Education Commons. The UNESCO OER Toolkit is an initiative of the Information Society Division of UNESCO’s Communication and Information Sector. The drafting of this toolkit was facilitated by Philipp Schmidt of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa.


  1. Report of the discussion on Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) for Open Educational Resources, compiled by International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP)
  2. FOSS in School Education
  3. FOSS: Education Primer, written by Tan Wooi Tong
  4. The Future of Learning Institutions in a Digital Age. By Cathy N. Davidson and David Theo Goldberg. John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. This report is available in a free digital edition on the MIT Press website at http://mitpress.mit.edu/9780262513593.

Status Reports:

  1. The State of the OpenCourse ware movement, 2010: NYT review


  1. Mark Taylor: End the University as We Know It: 6-point program to reform higher education critique

Digital Media Literacy

  1. The New Media Literacies project has a list of the new skills that children need to know to cope with the participatory media, at http://www.projectnml.org/node/308. Here's a summary of those New Media Literacy Skills.
  2. David Warlick maintains the very similar Redefining Literacies for the 21st Century pages.
  3. Participatory Media Literacy: wiki-based curriculum combines texts that address the social, political, economic, cultural aspects of participatory media with practical instructions in the use of each medium.

More Articles

  1. Thesis available online: Migrating to Open Source Learning Management Systems


  1. Henry Jenkins has a report on how education should be adapted to the requirements of a participatory culture and digital media, see Media Education in the 21st Century
  2. Back to School with the Class of Web 2.0 is a three-part overview of educational tools. It discusses amongst other topics, Online Gradebooks, Study Organizers. Part 3 covers Educational Blogging and Educational Podcasting.
  3. Recommendations as to the use of Creative Commons in schools by students, at http://innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=251. By Howard Pitler.
  4. Open Source Software for Education: introduction by Shaheen E. Lakhan and Kavita Jhunjhunwala.
  5. Home Schooling Goes Mainstream: status in 2008 [12]
  6. Amazing stories of openness in education: cases, testimonials

Key Blogs

Blogs that monitor P2P-like developments in the world of learning and education are:

  1. The Connectivism blog [13], a new educational theory for the peer to peer age
  2. Ewan McIntosh understands the learning needs of the digital natives
  3. Open Content and Education blog [14], freeing educational content
  4. Flosse Posse [15] monitors the use of free and open software in the educational field
  5. OL Daily by Stephen Downes [16], monitors how online can help in the creation of a more open and participatory learning environment.
  6. eLearn Space blog [17], for discussion of eLearning developments
  7. [18] monitors learning theories and epistemology from a deeper historial and philosophical background, as it related to e-learning, warning for digital myth-making.
  8. Global Mentoring blog [19], bringing peers together for learning
  9. Will Richardson's Learning with the Read-Write Web
  10. The New Media Literacies blog, helping teachers to help children getting familiar with new media
  11. Open Courseware blog
  12. Open Education News
  13. Chris Lott's Ruminate

Stephen Downes recommends the following blogs as 'best of breed'. And here are 25 edublogs you don't want to miss

For directories of educational blogs, see

  1. Schoolblogs
  2. Edublogs
  3. Top 100 Education blogs
  4. The Edublog Awards of 2007
  5. The top 50 educational blogs by engagement, i.e. number of comments, links, etc...
  6. Links to School Bloggers: very extensive
  7. 100 recommended education blogs

Key Books

  • Education in the Creative Economy: Knowledge and Learning in the Age of Innovation. Edited by Daniel Araya & Michael A. Peters. Peter Lang, 2010. Collection of essays with a sizeable number of essays concentrating on p2p thematics.
  1. Knowing Knowledge. By George Siemens. An exploration of participative learning.
  2. Everything is Miscellaneous. By David Weinberger. How we are changing the way we organize knowledge.
  3. The Edu-factory Collective (eds) (2009) Toward a Global Autonomous University. Cognitive Labor, The Production of Knowledge, and Exodus from the Education Factory. New York: Autonomedia, 2009 [20]
  4. Wikiworld: Political Economy of Digital Literacy, and the Road from Social to Socialist Media. Juha Suoranta - Tere Vadén. [21]
  5. The New Social Learning. by Tony Bingham and Marcia Conner: "quite simply, a must-read if you are in either responsible for learning in, or running, a business. In short, eloquent, and yet highly readable chapters, they cover both the natural ways we learn, and how the new technologies both support and enhance these capabilities." [22]

See also:

  1. Learning Networks. Linda Harasim et al.
  2. Opening Up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge. Editors Toru Iiyoshi and M. S. Vijay Kumar. MIT Press, 2008
  3. The Tower and The Cloud. Higher Education in the Era of Cloud Computer. Richard Katz, editor. Educause, 2008. URL of online edition at http://www.educause.edu/thetowerandthecloud/133998
  4. DIY U: Edupunks, Edupreneurs and the Coming Transformation of Higher Education. Anya Kamenetz. Chelsea Green, 2010 [23]
  5. Alfie Kohn's work on democratic learning communities and intrinsic learning motivation is foundational, see booklist at http://www.alfiekohn.org/books.htm
  6. Howard Rheingold recommends Will Richardson’s excellent book, Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms
  7. The Future of Higher Education. By Parker Rossman. A 3-volune online book.
  8. Giving Knowledge Away for Free, OECD report about open educational resources
  9. Coming of Age: Terry Freedman on using the Web 2.0 in the classroom


  1. OLCOS 2012 Roadmap on Open Education Resources: excellent introduction and overview for European audience

Key Conferences

  1. Educational Technology Conferences: Clayton R. Wright compiles the most comprehensive list of educational technology conferences.

See in particular:

  1. The Drumbeat Festival 2010 on "learning, freedom and the web" will feature many new informal learning initiatives (Barcelona, November 4-5, 2010)
  2. Future of Learning in a Networked World
  3. K12 Online

Key Courses

  1. David Wiley: http://www.opencontent.org/wiki/index.php?title=Intro_Open_Ed_Syllabus
  2. Teemu: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Composing_free_and_open_online_educational_resources
  3. Leigh and Bron: http://wikieducator.org/Designing_for_flexible_learning_practice
  4. Bron: http://wikieducator.org/Evaluation_of_eLearning_for_Best_Practice
  5. George Siemens: http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/connectivism/

To read: George Siemens' Reflections on Open Courses

Key Initiatives

Recommended organizations:

  1. People’s Open Access Education Initiative
  2. P2PU Peer2Peer University

Stephen Downes recommends:

  1. Best educational use of a virtual world: Media Grid Immersive Education
  2. Best educational use of a social networking service: OU Course Profiles on Facebook
  3. Best educational wiki: WikiEducator
  4. Best educational use of video / visual: Civilization III and World History
  5. Best educational use of audio: iTunes University
  6. Best teacher blog: The Open Classroom
  7. Best resource sharing blog: Jane's E-Learning Pick of the Day

Read the reasons for the recommendations here at http://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2007/12/not-edublog-award-winners.html

Key Journals

  1. Journal of Virtual Worlds and Education: an academic peer-reviewed journal that will present the best writing and thinking available about Virtual Worlds and their applications and implications for the field of education

Key Podcasts and Webcasts


  1. David Wiley on the Open Education Movement
  2. Doc Searls on Free and Open Source in Education
  3. Exploring Wikis in Education
  4. Stephen Downes on Connective Knowledge
  5. A Vision of Students Today: a must watch!!


We recommend: Astra Taylor on the Experience of Unschooling: personal experiences of growing up home-schooled without a curriculum or schedule

URL = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwIyy1Fi-4Q

Some of the comments are taken from the excellent list of Alec Courosa at http://educationaltechnology.ca/couros/1480


Good overview for beginners: Pia Waugh on Open Source Futures in Education


  1. Richard Baraniuk of Connexions on Open Source Learning and Textbooks
  2. Sir Ken Robinson on Do Schools Kill Creativity?, an excellent, humor filled 20 minute talk. Transcripts English and Dutch available too.

For Students:

  1. Did You Know 3.0 - Widely viewed video by Karl Fisch and Scott McLeod that gives light to the changes imminent in our emerging knowledge-based society. This is an excellent video for framing and introducing the the new reality to students, teachers, faculty, and administrators.

See also:

  1. An Anthropological Introduction to Youtube - Professor Michael Wesch’s presentation to the Library of Congress, June 23rd, 2008. The video is over 55 minutes long but is informative and engaging throughout.
  2. A Vision of Students Today - Another excellent video by Michael Wesch and his group that summarizes some of the most important characteristics of students today.
  3. A Portal To Media Literacy - This is an excellent presentation by Michael Wesch held at the University of Manitoba. “During his presentation, the Kansas State University professor breaks down his attempts to integrate Facebook, Netvibes, Diigo, Google Apps, Jott, Twitter, and other emerging technologies to create an education portal of the future.”


  1. Top educational video sites

Key Policy Statements

  1. The Capetown Open Education Declaration [24]; Critique by Stephen Downes; Response by David Wiley
  2. Make Textbooks Affordable

Key Reports

  1. Demos: Their Space: Education for a digital generation, 2010

Key Tags

  1. P2P Learning
  2. P2P Epistemlogy

Key Tools

  1. Free Software for Schools: a catalogue of open source computer programs for teaching and learning.
  2. A Free Learning Tool for Every Learning Problem? See the ZaidLearn Directory.
  3. Directory of Learning Tools: over 2,600 tools for learning, compiled by Jane Hart.
  4. A wiki on Gaming in Education, by John Evans

To Create Online Courses

Free-to-use software for creating online courses is now available. It was developed, and is being further developed, on the open source model by a worldwide network of educators and software designers. [25]

See the Listing of Open Source CMS E-Learning Packages [26] or Open Source Learning Management Systems [27]

  1. Curriki: a global education and learning community devoted to creating free, open-source curricula.
  2. Moodle: a free, open source, and highly flexible course management system that allows educators to create their own online courses

Also the following related directories:

  1. More course authoring tools in this directory.
  2. Course and Learning Management Systems
  3. Learning games and simulation tools
  4. Mobile learning authoring tools

Here is a Study Pack Creator

Most Important Collaborative Learning Technologies

  1. Charting Tools
  2. Collaborative Writing Tools
  3. Screensharing
  4. Web Presentation Tools
  5. Whiteboarding

More Mini-Guides from Robin Good:

  1. Instant Messaging Tools
  2. Online Video Publishing

The Read/Write blog has an overview on the use of blogging and podcasting in education and on Elgg, a social network for education. Here's how-to advice on Podcasting for Educators.

12 Screencasting tools to make your own video tutorials

Here is a provisional list of courses related to social technology, which are being updated through this link in Delicious

Teaching Collaboration

  1. The Social Media Classroom (we’ll call it SMC) includes a free and open-source (Drupal-based) web service that provides teachers and learners with an integrated set of social media that each course can use for its own purposes—integrated forum, blog, comment, wiki, chat, social bookmarking, RSS, microblogging, widgets , and video commenting are the first set of tools. The Classroom also includes curricular material: syllabi, lesson plans, resource repositories, screencasts and videos. The Collaboratory (or Colab), is what we call just the web service part of it. Educators are encouraged to use the Colab and SMB materials freely, and we host your Colab communities if you don’t want to install your own.
  2. Social Media for Educational Networking: list of networks
  3. Eduforge is an open access environment designed for the sharing of ideas, research outcomes, open content and open source software for education.
  4. The OER Commons is an open learning network where teachers share learning materials.
  5. The Net Pedagogy Portal is a resource whose purpose is to increase understanding, knowledge, and awareness of the changing landscape of teaching and learning online.
  6. The Bazaar is a community portal for people who want to use, exchange and share Open Source Software and resources to support learning.
  7. 25 Tools every Learning Professional should have in their Toolbox [28]
  8. Directory of Social Networks for Learning Professionals: compiled by Janet Hart.
  9. Cool Collaborative Tools for School


  1. Gradebook Tools

Teaching and Learning Resources

  1. Indispensable ICT Tools for teachers
  2. If you want free access to online learning resources, check out this Massive Directory of Learning Resources available in Open Access
  3. The Free Curricula Center assists in producing and distributing university level curricula that can be copied freely and modified cooperatively. The Global Text Project and Wikiversity aim to provide free and open textbooks to students worldwide. OER Recommender links you to open education resources related to web pages you are browsing
  4. Here are more sites that offer free learning materials and online courses under Creative Commons: ADUni.org, on Computer Science; Berklee Shares, provides a library of free music lessons in audio, video, and print-ready formats; Creative Commons Education; Internet Archive Open Educational Resources; MIT OpenCourseWare: Video and Audio; MSRI Math Lectures; Ourmedia Learning Center, tutorials and guides for a wide range of user-generated media activities; University Channel,collection of public affairs lectures.
  5. Specifically for high school: National Repository of Online Courses; Hippocampus
  6. This Massive Resource List for Autodidacts offers a one page summary of free online education resources, such as those of MIT, plenty of free video tutorials, and the like. You can also use the Open CourseWare Finder
  7. Robin Good of Master New Media has compiled a list of freely available Video Tutorials, mostly of a technical nature, for those wanting to learn production and usage of social media.
  8. Here is a list of free podcasts and webcasts provided by U.S. universities.
  9. Infed is a key resource on informal education, including peer to peer mentoring
  10. Open Source CMS and LCMS: links to open source Course Management Systems (CMS) and Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS) aimed at the Higher Education market. Example: Online Teaching and Learning
  11. Moodle Learning Management System, specially designed to help educators create localized online courses with opportunities for rich interaction between educators and students from all over the world
  12. 100 Free Online Lectures, for teachers, contains many good videos
  13. Partial List of Online University Lecture Sites

Student Sharing

Sindya Bhanoo: Top 10 recommended web tools for college students

This Is Me: = workbook to help students discover and construct their Digital Identity


  1. Notemesh allows student to share lecture notes per class.
  2. Pick A Prof is a really disruptive service to the old model of education. It allows students to find the grading histories of professors, and allows student to rate professors. See also: Rate My Professors
  3. StudyCurve helps middle school students find experts and study buddies
  4. The College FreeWay: a network for sharing notes, outlines, essays, problem sets, study guides and more. Users can search by university, course or type of document needed.
  5. Find student assessments of colleges and universities: UnigoYollegeCollege Prowler
  6. Cramster: an online study community offering homework help to college students

Resources at Shambles.net

  1. Guide to free software and Linux resources for education and schools.
  2. A listing of useful Mind Maps software
  3. Link pages on Web 2.0 resources for Learning [29]; #Research reports on the future of learning [30]


  1. List of University Wikies at http://universitywikinodewiki.wikia.com/wiki/University-wikis
  2. Main Unschooling Resources: collated by Chris Corrigan
  3. 50 places to read free books, [31]
  4. 35 tools for teachers, tutors, and students
  5. Cool Mind Mapping and Knowledge Organizing Tools for Schools

Recommended Instructional Videos

These are absolute must sees:

  1. The Machine is US: “Web 2.0 in just under 5 minutes”, explained by the Digital Ethnography Project at Kansas State University (Wesch). The video helps to illustrate important changes brought by Web 2.0 (read/write web, social web) as content and form became separated.


  1. RSS in Plain English; Howard Rheingold Introduces RSS
  2. Social Bookmarking in Plain English; Howard Rheingold Introduces Social Bookmarking
  3. Wikis in Plain English
  4. Social Networking in Plain English
  5. Online Photo Sharing in Plain English
  6. [[Blogs in Plain English
  7. Howard Rheingold on Making Stuff in Second Life
  8. How to Behave on an Internet Forum

Open Learning Content Initiatives

Open Textbooks Initiatives

  1. Flat World Knowledge
  2. CK-12
  3. Community College Open Textbook Collaborative
  4. Free Digital Textbook Initiative [32]
  5. Librivox
  6. OER Commons
  7. Wikibooks
  8. The Open Textbook Initiative, at http://wiki.bssd.org/index.php/Open_Content_Textbooks

Open Audio and Video of Lectures

  1. Academic Earth
  2. Berkeley Webcast
  3. TED
  4. YouTubeEDU

P2P Hall of Fame

Educational Theory

Who should be in our P2P Hall of Fame on Educational Theory?

Candidates are: George Siemens [33](connectivist learning theory); Jean-Francois Noubel [34] and Pierre Levy (collective intelligence); David Wiley [35](open content and open education); Stephen Downes [36] (e-learning); Alfred Kohn [37] (democratic learning communities); David Cormier's Rhizomatic Education

Educational Practitioners

Candidates are: Steve Ediger (Woodstock school in Northern India); Bryan Alexander [38](Web 2.0. in teaching); Chris Smith [39] (Shambles.Net, IT for international schools)

Recommended Initiatives

Candidates are: Lucy Hooberman's Mentoring Worldwide initiative [40]