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= where the joint and collaborative activity is usually short-lived and intensive, driven by activities. Roles and structure of the 'knot' are non-negotiable, like "a neurosurgery team will require a neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, scrub nurse, etc. "


"specific task-related collaboration, while flexible and fluid, with specific and non-negotiable roles; each actor in the knot has a specific task, which is therefore separable from the others' tasks; like an aircraft crew consists of pilots and stewards: they do not interact - i.e. work together as a 'team' - but each need to do their job to complete the overall goal; several components being developed together but independently, with specific roles assigned." (

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  1. Intensional Networks
  2. Communities of Practice