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See also:

  1. Transaction Costs; Mental Transaction Costs; Transaction Costs Theory
  2. Coordination Costs


User Owned theory defines Cost from the Object User's point of view as the amount the Owners of Physical Sources paid for the round of production that created that exact Object Instance.

Cost = Price - Profit

Some costs include: Access, Coordination, Exclusion, Investment, Insurance, Installation, Maintenance, Operation, Pollution, Security, Storage, Wages.

Contrast this with the Price paid by Users and Profit as the difference between the two.