Daniel Christian Wahl:
""The biophilia hypothesis suggests that humanity depends on nature not only for the obvious material and physical sustenance, but also for much deeper and equally important human needs for “aesthetic, intellectual, cognitive and even spiritual meaning and satisfaction” (Kellert & Wilson, 1993, p.20). “We are human in good part because of the particular way we affiliate with other organisms” and “the natural environment is critical to human meaning and fulfilment at both individual and societal level” (Kellert & Wilson, 1993). Our sense of urgency is prompted by the conviction that the modern onslaught upon the natural world is driven in part by a degree of alienation from nature. Our modern environmental crisis — the widespread toxification of various food chains, the multifaceted degradation of the atmosphere, the far-ranging depletion of diverse natural resources, and, above all, the massive loss of biodiversity and the scale of global species extinctions — is viewed as symptomatic of a fundamental rupture of human emotional and spiritual relationship with the natural world (Kellert & Wilson, 1993, p.26). David Orr has called for a Biophilia Revolution. He describes biophobia (literally the fear of life) as ranging “from discomfort in ‘natural’ places to active scorn for whatever is not man- made, managed, or air-conditioned”; and defines the term as “the culturally acquired urge to affiliate with technology, human artifacts, and solely with human interests regarding the natural world.” With regard to defining biophilia, Orr favours the psychologist Erich Fromm’s definition of biophilia as “the passionate love of life and of all that is alive” over Edward O. Wilson’s definition quoted above (Orr, 1993, p.416)."