= refers to the Indian caste structure and ideology
"The role of Varna in the history of India is comparable to that of Confucianism in China but is much older. It developed at the dawn of civilization. Some 12,000 years ago, during the neolithic period, hunter-gatherers turned to farming, initially wild varieties of crops like peas, lentils, and barley, and then herded wild animals like goats and wild oxen. Agriculture led to the first settlements, towns, and cities. The organic emergence of large, structured communities led to a “division of labor,” a requirement in the development of larger social structures. Fig. 2 The four generic Varna types: spiritual-intellectual, warrior, merchant, and worker
As these larger social structures emerged, Indian sages concluded that the development of societies evolved around activities that could be classified into four distinct types. Some people became administrators or religious teachers; some became soldiers providing protection; others became merchants who sold food produced by farmers and merchandise produced by craftsmen; and some became workers, employed by merchants, farmers, and craftsmen.
Translating the four generic types from Sanskrit is problematic, especially the term Brahman, which is translated as both spiritual and intellectual type (see also below). Generally, the four Varna types are broad categories, just like the yin and yang are broad, generic categories. Fig. 2 The four generic Varna types: spiritual-intellectual, warrior, merchant, and worker
The identification of the four types can be interpreted as an early form of psychological profiling. Taub referred to the Varna as “probably the deepest psychological profile of the human race.” Even more remarkable, Taub points out, is that the sages used this generic classification as the basis for a prophecy that resembles the prophecies we also find in monotheistic religions.
The Indian sages predicted that humanity as a whole goes through four cycles. Each of the four types — spiritual, warrior, merchant, and worker — after which the cycle returns to the first, spiritual phase to start the cycle again. The coming of a new spiritual era has its equivalence in the prophecy of the Promised land and the return of Jesus in the Bible, the Ingathering in the Talmud, and the return of the Mahdi (the “divinely guided one”) in the Quran.
Like their contemporaries elsewhere in the world, the Indian sages were mythologizers. They conceived of the cycle in astronomical terms. They spoke of ages (Kalpa and Yuga) lasting hundreds of thousands and even over a million years. "
"A description of the worker, merchant, warrior, and spiritual types developed by Hayward and Voros:
Group 1 — Workers
You want safety, security, and reasonable comforts. You want inspiration and faith to alleviate suffering and the fear of death. You usually leave complicated political and economic decisions to leaders you trust. When inspired, you loyally follow leaders of the other classes. But if your needs are not met, you can disrupt, create chaos, or even bring the system down.
Group 2 — Warriors (soldiers, policemen, etc.)
Your physical strength and courage are your greatest assets. You embrace challenge and struggle. You value honor, discipline, and self-sacrifice. Your will, patience, and work are your strengths. You protect society from danger and chaos by enforcing order. Sports and martial arts are your hobbies. You obey and expect others to obey authority and follow orders, no matter what.
Group 3 — Intellectuals (thinking, seeking, contemplative types)
Your developed mind is your greatest asset. The search for truth, removing errors and confusion, is your purpose. Some of you have knowledge of science, while others have knowledge of spiritual reality. You protect everyone by making rules and laws and ordering the warriors to enforce them. You debate hard so that the best ideas win. You create enlightenment. You lead others by establishing your religion, your science, or your political system as the Truth.
Group 4 — Entrepreneurs (merchants)
You excel in administration and organization. Efficient and effective, you manage large numbers of people to produce new products and accomplish difficult tasks. Through wealth and power, you can help everyone. You reward loyal service with higher salaries. Efficiency is very important."