Targeted currencies = designed for specific communities with specific problems
"Targeted currencies are a tool used to increase the flow of resources within a community. These are specifically designed for each community and their specific problems, as opposed to 'one size fits all' solutions. The ultimate goal is to create a rich ecology of currencies that can add the dimensions of abundance and sufficiency to the global economy, balancing out the economics of scarcity that reigns the world today. Alternative, complementary, incentive and local currencies are all types of targeted currencies." (http://www.targetedcurrencies.net/)
"A targeted currency is one that is designed to solve a specific problem. Every community has unmet needs and untapped resources. Targeted currencies can serve as the catalyst to activate latent resources, creating new economic flow.
In an ecosystem, each species has their own vital fluid; the blood of a deer would not substitute for the sap of a pine tree. But too often currency designers bring the thinking of managed systems (hierarchical, top-down) to the design of currencies. This thinking manifests by trying to use a familiar system over and over again, even when conditions differ significantly from those that presaged the original system design.
Rather than using general design parameters, a targeted currency has tailored characteristics that address the specific needs, resources and values of a community, matching needed outcomes to unique problems.
Targeted currencies are dynamic. Generally, they start their lives with a simple set of characteristics that address the needs, resources and values of a community. The currency evolves as the nature of the community changes and users begin to realize the power of currency distinctions, adding layers of complexity as they’re appropriate. These shifts can encompass major characteristics as well as refinements of algorithms that define how quickly and to what places the currency flows.
Targeted currencies can exhibit interdependence. When we design solutions to solve complex, multi-faceted problems, one possible result is a system that uses multiple, interdependent currencies to achieve the desired resource flow. Just as human blood carries red and white cells, so, too, can the economic fluid of a community carry multiple messenger streams that combine to provide economic vitality.
Targeted currencies resonate with the values of a community. With the wide diversity of community values in the world, money can be asked to provide some unique social roles and uphold ancient agreements. By supporting the underlying social mores, a targeted currency can enhance the community’s bond." (http://targetedcurrencies.net/moreabouttargetedcurrencies)
See the Targeted Currencies Network.
Related information in the entry on Monetary Reform