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= "means the consumers are not economically pre-vented from consumption either because the producer surplus is eaten up by the difficulty of exclusion or compensation cannot be extracted from “free riders.” Exclusion is valueless and there is little incentive to invest."

- Mark Cooper [1]


"When the benefits offered by something cannot be excluded from some people, yet provided to others, they are said to be non-excludable." (

More Information

  1. Property
  2. Nonrivalry