Methodology for the Study of Open Complex Giant System

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* Article: A new discipline of science — The study of open complex giant system and its methodology. By Qian Xuesen, Yu Jingyuan, and D. Ru-wei. Economics, Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, 1 June 1993



"This paper introduces the conception of open complex giant system and the methodology for dealing with the system, with stress on its profound significance in development of science and technology. The authors conclude that the reductionism underlying the exact science is not suitable to open complex giant system, and the only feasible alternative is the meta-synthetic engineering from the qualitative to the quantitative."