"From the streets of Bologna to the Italian Constitution, a newly conceived local regulation on the collaborative governance of urban commons.
Collaborative governance will become the salient characteristic of the City of Bologna and paragraph 118 (4) of the Italian Constitution, introducing the principle of horizontal subsidiary, will finally become the keystone of a new relationship between cities and governments. Horizontal subsidiarity demands all levels of governments to find ways to share their powers and cooperate with single or associated citizens willing to excercise their constitutional right to carry out activities of general interest.
The project “Cities as Commons” (www.cittabenicomuni.it) has demonstrated that a partnership between public administrations and citizens is today possible. Public administrations shall no longer govern only on behalf of citizens, but also together with citizens." (http://www.labgov.it/wordpress/cities-as-commons-the-italian-constitution-find-application-in-bologna/)