Historical Timeline Towards Inequality and Hierarchy
From a google doc entitled 'Our Story'. Not sure about the author.
Very good bibliographical resources for a review of historical evolution.
Egalitarian Hunter-Gatherer Model
From egalitarian, stable and sustainable to unequal, unstable and unsustainable in rough chronological order.
- 3.4 million years ago - Tools - https://www.amazon.co.uk/Knowledge-How-Rebuild-World-Scratch/dp/1847922279
- 1.8 million years ago - Hunter-gatherer -
- https://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21725276-living-land - "Modern San (bushmen - hunter gatherers) struggle to cope in a market economy"
- Elizabeth Marshall Thomas: The Harmless People - https://www.amazon.co.uk/Harmless-People-Vintage-Elizabeth-Marshall/dp/067972446X
- The Old Way https://www.amazon.co.uk/Old-Way-Story-First-People/dp/031242728X http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/books/review/Fuller.t.html - " the book is also a reminder that we ignore our biology and our environment at our peril. We are, after all, primates who depend on all the systems of the living planet for our survival." - http://www.fsmitha.com/review/ethomas.htm "The concept of trying to control nature belongs to the agricultural peoples, but not necessarily to those of the Old Way."
- Agustın Fuentes - https://news.nd.edu/news/early-humans-on-the-menu/
- How Hunter-Gatherers Maintained Their Egalitarian Ways - https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/201105/how-hunter-gatherers-maintained-their-egalitarian-ways
- 800,000 years ago - Fire - https://www.alternet.org/environment/how-fire-made-us-human
Maybe once we had gained control of fire, this allowed us to move to colder climes. Perhaps then the need to store food for the winter prompted the idea of "this is mine and I'll kill to protect it"?
Exploitation and extraction
This stable model was about to end and enter a more exploitative model
- 10,000 years ago - Agrarians - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrarian_society
- 9,000–6,000 BCE - Money - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_money
- 3,100 BCE - Patriarchy - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriarchy
- https://courses.lumenlearning.com/cochise-sociology-os/chapter/the-origins-of-patriarchy/ ** http://www.sociologyguide.com/gender/patriarchy.php
Hierarchy is inevitable. - https://evolution-institute.org/blog/the-pipe-dream-of-anarcho-populism/?source=sef
- 1860 BCE - Slavery - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery
- 1,750 BCE - Usury "The Code of Hammurabi regulates the interest that can be charged on a loan. Historical records indicate that many loans were made below the legal limit."
The Glubb "spiral of death"
- 859 BCE - Empires - http://www.historytoday.com/sean-lang/are-all-empires-bad -
- Assyria 859-612 BCE (247 years)
- Persia 538-330 BCE (208 years)
- Greece 331-100 BCE (231 years)
- Roman Republic 260-27 BCE (233 years)
- Roman Empire 27 BCE-180 CE (207 years)
- Arab Empire 634-880 (246 years)
- Mameluke Empire 1250-1517 (267 years)
- Ottoman Empire 1320-1570 (250 years)
- Spain 1500-1750 (250 years)
- Romanov Russia 1682-1916 (234 years)
- Britain 1700-1950 (250 years)"
These follow a pattern: 1. The age of outburst (or pioneers).
2. The age of conquests.
3. The age of commerce.
4. The age of affluence.
5. The age of intellect.
6. The age of decadence.
7. The age of decline and collapse.
- 500+ BCE - Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu writes “The Art of War”
- 509 BCE - Representative democracy - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representative_democracy
- 200 - Original sin - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Original_sin
- Transgression of social "norms" requires punishment - http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/prison-doesnt-work-why-dont-we-care/
- 1235 - Property: Enclosure acts - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enclosure
- 1415 - Colonisation - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_colonialism
- 1513 - Columbus and the Spanish "Requirement" - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Requirement_of_1513
- 1532 - Niccolò Machiavelli published The Prince “claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy, in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. It was also in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time concerning politics and ethics”
- 1604 to 1914 - Property: Inclosure acts - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inclosure_Acts
- 1760 - Industrialisation - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_industrialisation
- 1770 and 1788 - Australia (terra nullius) is "discovered" - "One man [Cook], standing on a small island, claimed ownership, for the Crown, of an entire, occupied continent." - https://meanjin.com.au/essays/when-we-encountered-the-nomads-2/
- 1839–1842 and 1856–1860 - Opium wars - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opium_Wars
- 1840 - Property is Theft! - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Property_is_theft
- Commoditisation - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fictitious_commodities
- 1865 - The Coal Question - Jevons - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Coal_Question
- 1877 - Taylorism - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_management
- 1883 - Mass production - http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/economics-business-and-labor/economics-terms-and-concepts/mass-production
- 1938 - Neoliberalism https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoliberalism > Neoliberal Economics https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/nov/14/the-fatal-flaw-of-neoliberalism-its-bad-economics
- Chicago boys - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Boys
- 1979 - Thatcher/Reagan-ism https://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/04/margaret-thatchers-macroeconomic-legacy
- Milton Friedman - https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2006/nov/16/post650 https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/milton-friedman.asp
Markets and Tariffs
- 1952 - Synthesis of "wants" - marketing and consumerism - http://sites.middlebury.edu/econ0450f10/files/2010/08/galbraith.pdf
- 1956 - Peak oil (concept) - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_oil
- 1958 - Meritocracy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meritocracy
- Opportunities - https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/equal-opportunity/
- Success - Competition is for failures - https://www.huffingtonpost.com/grant-cardone/competition-breeds-failur_b_805573.html
- A L Kennedy - Winning - "Winning - isn't it great?" asks A.L. Kennedy.
But she argues that our "winner takes all" mentality is suffocating democracy. "On both sides of the Atlantic, in regimes around the world", she writes, "we can watch the chaotic dissolution of administrations based on winning at any price". " http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09ppz9p
- Infantilisation - https://medium.com/bad-words/the-infantilization-economy-4c9417abbd9 c.f. **Transactional Analysis: Parent - Child
- 1973 - Stockholm Syndrome - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockholm_syndrome
- 2016 - Peak stuff (concept and actual) - **https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jan/31/consumerism-reached-peak-stuff-search-for-happiness
- Really want to know how bad it is?
- The World is Running Out of Sand - https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/world-facing-global-sand-crisis-180964815/
- Flying insects - http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/05/where-have-all-insects-gone - https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/german-preserves-see-76-percent-decline-flying-insects-180965328/ - https://www.sciencealert.com/flying-insects-are-disappearing-at-alarming-rates-and-we-should-all-be-worried?perpetual=yes&limitstart=1
- The next big crash - https://www.marketwatch.com/story/three-reasons-the-next-crash-may-be-worse-than-1987s-2017-10-18
- Air - https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/dec/27/we-dont-have-time-to-wait-and-see-air-pollution-protesters-resort-to-direct-action
- Plastic - https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/sep/06/we-are-living-on-a-plastic-planet-what-does-it-mean-for-our-health
- Global Warming - https://www.ucsusa.org/our-work/global-warming/science-and-impacts/global-warming-impacts
- Loss of biodiversity - http://www.end-times-prophecy.org/animal-deaths-birds-fish-end-times.html
- Then there is also of course - Rising inequality
- The traditional model for progress and success is clearly laid out in Glubb's The Fate of Empires and * Search for survival - http://people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/glubb.pdf In essence Rape, Pillage, Occupation,
- Subjugation, Exploitation, Enrichment (for the few), Decadence, Exhaustion - Repeat.
This approach worked when there was somewhere else to colonise. Today we don't have that luxury, so we need a reset. Looking though the above list, where did it all start to go awry? Given that we have not changed, psychologically, since the Stone Age, we cannot expect to change much now. We can only draw on ways of behaving that have worked in the past and try to learn the lessons.
What will our descendants think?
- Ways of working together in a fairer more human way - http://www.reinventingorganizations.com/
- Ways of making the best (most sustainable) use of our finite resources - Circular Economy https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy and its variants https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/schools-of-thought/cradle2cradle
- Ways of social organising on a large scale - distributed, networked, collaborative - UnTied Nations - http://www.untiednations.com/