Elinor Ostrom’s Eight Commons Governance Design Principles
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Following her studies of innumerable long-enduring Commons, Ostrom concluded that the following eight “design principles” were essential elements which were always to be found in the way these sustainable CPRs organise themselves.
- Clearly defined boundaries, which define who has access to the CPR.
- Appropriation and provision rules which are tailored to local conditions.
- Collective-choice arrangements, that allow most resource appropriators to participate in the decision-making process.
- Effective monitoring (monitors accountable to the appropriators, or are the appropriators )
- Graduated sanctions for resource appropriators who violate operational community rules.
- Conflict resolution mechanisms that are cheap and rapidly accessed.
- Self-determination of the community recognized by higher-level authorities.
- Nested enterprises. Larger CPRs are organised in the form of multiple layers of nested enterprises, with small local CPRs at the base level."