Cooperative Networks in the Italian Economy
* Article: Co-operative networks in the Italian economy. by Tito Menzani and Vera Zamagni. “Enterprise and Society”, 2009, no.4
"This paper analyzes the co-operative enterprises networking in the Italian economy, in accordance with recent economic theory to throw light on the causes of the success of Italian cooperatives in the last 30 years. We resort to the vast literature about business networks to identify some interpretative lines that can be transferred to the co-operative world. On this basis, a typology of the Italian co-operative networks is offered, in order to evaluate the competitive advantages of each type of net, their governance methods, their evolution, and their impact on the recent flourishing of Italian co-operatives. Our conclusion is that the use of networks by co-ops has been very intensive and can still be strengthened, if the Italian co-operative umbrella organizations will merge. The building up of large co-operative corporations was often the result of networking, as well as the creation of joint stock companies owned by co-operatives."