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"By David Rozas and Nigel Gilbert:

"The notion of contribution is a key element of CBPP communities. As argued by Wittel (2013), those CBPP communities focussed on the production of digital commons typically possess an economy of contribution (not based on direct reciprocity), rather than an economy of gift (based on direct reciprocity). In these cases, the notion of what kind of activities are understood as contributions becomes even more blurred, and can be understood as a set of meanings which are constantly evolving as part of a series of negotiation processes of the members who participate in these communities." (


Object-Oriented vs. Community-Oriented Contribution Activities

David Rozas et al. :

"When studying what types of activities are perceived as contributions in the Drupal community, two main types of contribution activities emerged. The first was “object-oriented” contributions, encompassing all activities whose main focus of action are objects, typically digital commons, such as source code, documentation, and translations. The second category was “community-oriented” contributions, the focus of which is directed toward the community." (

More Information

  • Related concepts:
  1. Contributory Resource Use
  2. Intellectual Contributions
  3. Rewards for Contributions