= "Civic Economics is an economic analysis and strategic planning consultancy, analyzing and strategizing on a range of issues facing American communities, businesses, and civic organizations".
"Since its establishment in 2002, Civic Economics has conducted a number of studies comparing the economic impacts of independent, locally-owned businesses with that of their chain competitors. The essential methodology is the same throughout:
independent businesses open their books to us and demonstrate the proportion of revenue expended five categories:
1. Profits paid out to local owners,
2. Wages paid to local workers,
3. Procurement of goods services for internal use,
4. Procurement of local goods for resale, and
5. Charitable giving within the community.
For chains competitors, the aggregate value of these is estimated from public records. The difference between these two totals captures the enhanced impact of the one or the other category of business (we have yet to encounter a situation where independents did not present a strong local impact advantage)." (http://www.localfirst.org/images/stories/SLC-Final-Impact-Study-Series.pdf)
- "To learn more about previous studies in Austin, Chicago, San Francisco, Phoenix, Grand Rapids, and New Orleans and download a summary of those and others, please visit The Civic Economics of Retail", at: