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1.From the Wikipedia:

"Backcasting starts with defining a desirable future and then works backwards to identify policies and programs that will connect the future to the present. The fundamental question of backcasting asks: "if we want to attain a certain goal, what actions must be taken to get there?"[2][3]Forecasting is the process of predicting the future based on current trend analysis. Backcasting approaches the challenge of discussing the future from the opposite direction." (


"Backcasting is a straightforward idea, one which follows on naturally from the process of visioning. I’m sure it has been around for a while, but the first time I heard of it was in an excellent book “Natural Step for Communities: How Cities and Towns Can Change to Sustainable Practices” by Sarah James and Torbjorn Lahti (2004). They argue for a process which starts with visioning a desirable future and then working backwards. It is based on the question “if we want to get somewhere, what actions do we need to take in order to get there?” (