Compiled by Valentin Spirik:
The open-source Streamripper http://streamripper.sourceforge.net/ lets users record e.g. webradio as .mp3 files. For OS X users: StreamRipperX http://streamripperx.sourceforge.net/ (the old StreamRipperX 1.0.5 still works under OS X 10.3.9, not only 10.2 as mentioned).
Wiretap http://www.ambrosiasw.com/utilities/wiretap/ "allows you to record audio from any running applications, as well as from any microphone, line-in, headset...". Commercial software. (Free option via Audacity: see above)
Snapz Pro X http://www.ambrosiasw.com/utilities/snapzprox/ "allows you to effortlessly record anything on your screen, saving it as a QuickTime® movie or screenshot". Commercial software.
Copernicus http://danicsoft.com/projects/copernicus/ "doesn't just take screenshots... allows you to save directly to RAM, increasing movie framerates significantly for shorter movies". Requires OS X 10.4. Free commercial software.
Screen Mimic http://www.polarian.com/products/ScreenMimic.php "allows you to create screencasts (recordings of your Mac OS X desktop) that can be saved as Adobe Flash (SWF), Flash Video (FLV), or Quicktime (MOV) files". Requires OS X 10.4. Commercial software.
VH Screen Capture Driver http://www.free-codecs.com/download/VH_Screen_Capture_Driver.htm "is a DirectShow filter, which emulates Video Capture card and captures screen activity." Freeware.
List of Video Recording software from Softpedia http://www.softpedia.com/catList/112,0,1,0,1.html. Mainly commercial software, some freeware.
SnagIt http://www.softwarecasa.com/pprod/212401dd.htm "All the screen capture and editing functionality you’ll ever need, in one simply powerful program." Commercial software. (Free option via Audacity: see above)
Camtasia Studio http://www.softwarecasa.com/pprod/212402dd.htm "Full-Motion Screen Recording Software". Commercial software.
recordMyDesktop http://recordmydesktop.sourceforge.net/ is an open-source software that "offers also the ability to record audio, along with video."