Public Participation

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"By public participation we mean the engagement of individuals with the various structures and institutions of democracy. Other authors refer to this as political, civic, or vertical participation and/or participatory governance. Examples of public participation include: voting in local or national elections; being a councillor; and taking part in government (or associated) consultations." (


"In the annual (UK) Citizenship Survey, the Department of Communities and Local Government (CLG) distinguishes three strands of public participation under the overall term ‘citizen engagement’ (CLG, 2009: 2):

Civic activism refers to involvement in direct decision-making about local services or issues or in the actual provision of these services by taking on a role such as local councillor, school governor or magistrate. • Civic consultation refers to active engagement in consultation about local services or issues through activities such as attending a consultation group or completing a questionnaire about these services. • Civic participation refers to activities such as contacting a local councillor, attending a public meeting, signing a petition or engaging in consultations about local services and issues through completing a questionnaire or attending consultation group." (

More Information

  1. Social Participation