Open Access Publishing Income Models

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SPARC's Income Models for Supporting Open Access Guide at


"Developing a sound business model is a critical concern of publishers considering open-access distribution. Selecting the model appropriate to a particular journal will depend not only on the expense hurdle that must be cleared, but also on the publisher’s mission objectives, size, business management resources, risk tolerance, tax status, and institutional or corporate affiliation.

This Web site and accompanying guide provide an overview of income models currently being used to support the open-access distribution of peer-reviewed scholarly and scientific journals. These resources will be a useful tool both for publishers exploring new potential sources of income and for libraries weighing where to direct meager library funds."


Supply-side income models: supply-side models, funded primarily by producers of the content or by proxies that pay on their behalf.

  • Article Processing Fees
  • Advertising
  • Sponsorships
  • Internal Subsidies
  • External Subsidies
  • Donations & Fundraising
  • Endowments
  • In-Kind Support
  • Partnerships

Demand-side models: funded primarily by consumers of the content or by proxies that pay on their behalf.

  • Use-Triggered Fees
  • Convenience-Format License
  • Value Added Fee-Based Services
  • Contextual E-Commerce

More Information

  1. Open Business Models