Money is a Creature of Fiscal Accounting and Law

From P2P Foundation
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Raymond Aitken:

Money Evolved From Credit

  • Research into this question by anthropologists over the last 5,000 of human social development, (i.e. not by economists with vested interests or received dogmas), shows that money evolved from credit, and not from barter. And, that the unit of account function predated that of the commodified means of exchange. What this means, is that money originated as the accounting of economic rights and obligations within a community of producer-consumers (i.e. a social relationship), and that these rights were “securitised” by the social contract, in terms of the law within a given polity.

A means of exchange in terms of a commodity with intrinsic value was only used to overcome the limits of ensuring reciprocity between different monetary jurisdictions (polities) - i.e. for “international trade”, or for the payment of foreign mercenaries during campaigns to establish, maintain or extend hegemonic control over international trade (i.e. empire building).


[1] David Graeber (2011): "Debt: The First 5000 Years" -

Money evolved from fiscal accounting

  • Anthropological research shows the historical evidence that money is a creature of fiscal accounting and law (as Aristotle and many others have asserted). See:

[2] P2P foundation (2013): Tally Money -

[3] Dirk J Bezemer, 2009: Banks As Social Accountants And Social Controllers: Credit and Crisis in Historical Perspective -

[4] Dirk J Bezemer, 2009: Banks As Social Accountants: Credit and Crisis Through an Accounting Lens -

[5] Dirk J Bezemer, 2009: "No One Saw This Coming": Understanding Financial Crisis Through Accounting Models -

[6] Stiglitz and Weiss, 1988: Banks as social accountants and screening devices for the allocation of credit - National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Paper #2710 -

[7] Richard A. Werner, 2014: How do banks create money, and why can other firms not do the same? An explanation for the coexistence of lending and deposit-taking -

We need self-financing without banks

We need to "establish monetary systems which are based on pure honest accounting of the mutualised credit that arises as a common good between any community of producer-consumers (prosumers). This is the significance of Thomas Greco’s advocacy of the “Credit Commons”.

In fact, we need to establish a self-financing international monetary system, based on sovereign subsidiarity, that is without dependency on bondholders, central bank liquidity, commercial bank reserves or foreign investors. It might prove very difficult to get the banks to transform their incumbent institutional culture, and provide banking as a public service from the perspective that banking is social accounting. The alternative option is to commission accountancy firms instead.

The transition to transactional banking by accountants does not need to use the legacy of the expensive and cumbersome transactional infrastructure and ATMs of traditional banks. Clearing between accounts can now be done in real time via freely available banking software, such as Cyclos, which also offers a secure mobile phone channel to replace traditional ATM services.

What this means is that banking will become a public service of pure accountancy of monetised credit rights and obligations, without the need for the pantomime of “reserves”, and without the need for outside “investors”. Because the recognition and transfer of such monetised economic rights will be accounted for as pure bookkeeping, they cannot be regarded as “deposits” by the accounting firm, and therefore cannot be appropriated as unsecured “loans” to recapitalise the balance sheets of bankrupt financial institutions."


[8] Shann Turnbull (June 2015): "Is the self-financing, self-liquidating ‘stamp scrip’ the answer for Greece?", Financial Times -

[9] Thomas H. Greco, Jr.: "Reclaiming the Credit Commons: Towards a Butterfly Society" -

[10] Raymond Aitken (July 2015): "Greece needs a new International Monetary System" -

[11] Cyclos:

[12] Raymond Aitken (July 2015):"Bail-in proof banking without Grexit" -

More Information