Mayo Fuster Morell

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Bio

"Mayo Fuster Morell is the Dimmons director of research on collaborative economy at the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute of the Open University of Catalonia. Additionally, she is faculty affiliated at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, and at Institute of Govern and Public Policies at Autonomous University of Barcelona (IGOPnet). In 2010, she concluded her PhD thesis at the European University Institute in Florence on the governance of common-based peer production, and have numerous publications in the field. She is the principal investigator for the European project P2Pvalue: Techno-social platform for sustainable models and value generation in commons-based peer production. She is also responsible of the experts group BarCola on collaborative economy and commons production at the Barcelona City Council."

Contribution to the commons theory & action

Theoretical contribution to commons theory

Mayo Fuster Morell dedicated her PhD thesis to analyzing the conditions of possibility and success of digital common-pool resources (digital commons), analyzing which governance conditions characterize collective action as a commons frame in contrast to corporates enterprises in the digital environment, and how governance shapes the communities. In this thesis, Fuster Morell provided an empirically based definition of digital commons, and a conceptualization and framework to analyze governance of collective action in the digital environment. She developed an adaptation of the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework to the digital commons.1

Previous research of the governance of digital commons had been based on analyzing specific aspects of the governance. Most of the analysis focused on the policies and the decisions around the roles in the community interaction. However, there was a gap in the literature, lacking a comprehensive and holistic view of what governance means in collective action online. Building upon the literature of democratic quality (mainly Morlino) and Internet and politics studies, Fuster Morell developed a definition and operationalization of dimensions of democratic quality in online collective action. Additionally, building upon commons theory and cyberlaw (mainly Yochai Benkler work on common-based peer production (CBPP)), she developed a conceptualization of governance of the digital commons, and provided an empirically grounded description of several governance models present in digital commons. Most of previous work did not consider infrastructure provision in their analysis. Her research challenges previous literature by questioning the neutrality of infrastructure for collective action and demonstrating that infrastructure governance shapes collective action. Importantly, her empirical research provides an empirical explanation of the organizational strategies most likely to succeed in creating large-scale collective action in terms of the size of participation and complexity of collaboration.2 In hypothesizing that the emerging forms of collective action are able to increase in terms of both participation and complexity while maintaining democratic principles, her research challenges Olson’s assertion that formal organizations tend to overcome collective action dilemmas more easily, and challenges the classical statements of Weber and Michels that as organizations grow in size and complexity, they tend to create bureaucratic forms and oligarchies. Additionally, her work provides an empirically grounded characterization of two conflicting logics present in the conditions for collective action in the digital era: a commons versus a corporate logic of collective action. The research sheds lights on the emerging free culture and access to knowledge movement in defence of the digital commons as a sign of this conflict.

In contrast to other communities around natural resources, communities around digital common pool-resources are open to participation, which makes it difficult to establish community boundaries. Additionally, empirical analysis of most online communities investigated show a tendency towards a very unequal distribution of the contributions, or 90/9/1 power law, where around 90% of participants lurk or act as an audience, around 9% make minor contributions and around 1% are very active contributors. Fuster Morell moved beyond the mere recognition of the 90/9/1 principle in the literature, to analyses of the functioning of online communities which result in the unequal distribution of participation. By introducing the interdependency of 90, 9, and 1 degrees of contribution into the analysis, she suggested the concept of ecosystemic participation to explain the power law. The term ecosystemic participation highlights the co-dependency and mutual adaptation of the different forms and degrees of contribution (each playing a role), in order to strike an equilibrium between them for the sustainability and effectiveness of the common mission. Additionally, Fuster Morell investigated the conceptions of democracy and the explanations of the communities of the power law present at the communities around digital commons.3

At a theoretical level, she engaged on the debate on the defining of the digital commons. While law scholarship tradition (with scholars such as Rose, Lessig and Benkler) points to open access as the defining condition to define a digital commons, Fuster Morell argues that open access is not a sufficient condition. To the open access of the common-pool resource, she argues must add a governance design that maintains community control over the collaborative process of building the common-pool resource. In this regard, both open access resources provision and community governance (incorporating Ostrom school tradition) should be considered.4

Beyond the nodular focus of her PhD research, the governance of digital commons, Fuster Morell has developed postdoctoral research in a series of derivative angles. She has developed cross-time analysis of the digital commons (looking to cases emerging in the 80s to now a days) and analyzed the historical emergence and evolution of digital commons as well as suggesting some possible horizons of future development.5 From a political science perspective, one of these angles is the investigation of the digital commons as an inspirational organizational form and metaphor for political organizing and mobilization.6 She investigated the development of a free culture movement for the defense of the digital commons.7 Then, in her work “From digital commons to society commons”, she investigated the role of the digital commons movement in the emergence and shaping of the Indignados mobilization in Spain.8 A second angle of analysis is investigating the external context as a dependent variable to explain the growth of commons practices. In this regard, she – as part of the research “Crisis of the representative system and new forms of protagonism at the civil society” at the Networked Politics program - analyzed the relationship between the crisis of the State in several European countries (Italy and Spain) with the growth of commons practices.9 Additionally, together with Joan Subirats, she analyzed the implications for public policy-making and the new requirements for the public administrations of the growth of commons practices in Spain.10

From a more economical innovation perspective, building upon the literature on commons theory, managerial studies, and social economy studies, she analyzed (together with Ruben Martinez, Marco Berlinguer and Joan Subirats) the emerging models of monetarian and non-monetarian forms of sustainability of audiovisual commons.11 Finally, she has investigated the process of enclousement of the commons though the expansion of the new economy of information sharing. She suggested the concept of wiki-washing, to characterize a similar phenomenon to the green-washing in the media corporations characterized by the re-appropriation by corporation of sustainability and social values connected to the commons.12 In a major project submitted it to the European Commission 7th Program of which she is one of the six leading members, named P2Pvalue, a research designed on the analysis of value creation and metric in CBPP was developed. Furthermore, the ultimate goal of the extended research on CBPP of the project is to inform the design and deliver of a technological platform to support CBPP sustainability. 13 Finally, Fuster Morell has developed research on gender and the commons. Very high gender inequality is characteristic of collaborative communities, such as the free and open software communities and Wikipedia (with a gender rate of 1,5% of women engagement the first and around 13% of the second). Together with D. Laniado, C. Castillo, and A. Kaltenbrunner,14 Fuster Morell developed sentiment analysis and the role of emotions in order to investigate possible explanations of the “gender gap.”

Diverse cases and types of commons comparative perspective

Fuster Morell thesis is innovative also in terms of its comparative character. Most of the research on CBPP has been developed only for the case of free and open sources software. The empirical research was then expanded to the case of Wikipedia. However, this research has failed to take into account the diversity of types of CBPP, concentrating mainly on FLOSS and, on Wikipedia. Fuster Morell pioneered the mapping of a larger sample of diverse CBPP cases, analyzing the conditions of success in 50 cases. In addition, previous research tended to focus on single success case analysis. In contrast, Fuster Morell developed a case comparison (both quantitative and qualitative case studies comparison), including failed cases in the analysis. In her sampling, she also considered informal as well as failure cases, that even if more difficult to identify, were allowed to enrich the analysis on the conditions of success in the digital commons and in concrete to analyses of the level of formalization.15

Fuster Morell engaged with a plurality of typologies of commons and communities from diverse regions and disciplines. Fuster Morell has developed research both on the local commons (such as wireless sharing community network in the Catalonia pirineus)16, as well as global ones, such as Wikipedia. She has also developed case comparisons between cases based in United States and Spain.17 She just started a collaboration with a project based on comparing cases in India, Russia, Brazil and Russia.18 Additionally, Fuster Morell has not only investigated the commons with a mainly online base, but also the role of ICT in supporting local communities.

Commons studies field building

Fuster Morell has been very active and collaborative in developing a field of studies around the digital commons in various forms. Fuster Morell is the promoter and coordinator of a research group on the Internet, public policies and common as part of the Institute of Government and Public Policies (IGOP) at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (www.IGOPnet.cc). IGOP is a pioneering and leading institute in Spain researching on public policies. As part of this group, she has been in the leading group of two major project submissions to the European Commission 7th program, as well as a project to organize a iberoamerican network studying the commons to the Spanish Agency of Cooperation, in which a large network of institutions connected to the commons, such as the International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC), have been co-involved in several forms. Additionally, in order to contribute to building bridges between research and practitioners, she has developed work as a member of the Research Committee of the Wikimedia Foundation (linked to Wikipedia) and the Open Knowledge Foundation, both leading institutions promoting the digital commons.

In political science international networking, she is also member of the steering committee of the Internet and Politics Standing Group of the European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR). She has also been part of organizing committees of academic conferences specific to the field of online collective action, such as the program committee of the “Third Free Culture Research Conference: Free Culture between Commons and Markets: Approaching the Hybrid Economy?” (8th & 9th October 2010 at the Free University Campus in Berlin, in collaboration with COMMUNIA, the European Network on the digital public domain and Wikimedia Germany) and a member of the Symposium Committee of the “International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration 2010”. (Gdansk, Poland. From 7th to 9th of July 2010). She is also a member of the scientific committee of the Journal on critical peer to peer studies, and editor of the peer-reviewed journals on Interface: A journal about and for social movements.

Impact on public policy and society at large

Fuster Morell was co-founder and organizer of the 2009 and 2010 edition of the international forum on free culture, digital rights and access to knowledge (Fcforum), an international encounter of civic society actors and policy-makers, who are engaged in reflecting on the social and economic challenges of the dissemination of culture and knowledge. The first edition of the Fcforum ended up with the definition of the “Charter for innovation, creativity and access to knowledge”. A broad coalition of 200 civic society organizations from 20 countries signed the charter. The 2010 edition of FCForum focused on economical models, and it resulted in a “Declaration and How to Manual on sostenibility” of creativity on the digital era, which was also widely supported. In 2011, Fuster Morell co-organized a first international conference of digital commons, specific to digital commons actors and which resulted in the building of a digital commons alliance.19 Additionally, she is one of the co-organizers of the School of the Commons, a monthly seminar of scholars and practitioners around commons issues in Barcelona.20 She has also promoted the organization of the Sharing commons sprint at Barcelona (March 2013) as part of a iberoamerican collaborative mapping of the commons.

References:

1 See Fuster Morell, M. (2013). Online creation communities viewed through the analyticalframework of the institutional analysis and development. Madison, M. J., Strandburg, K., & Frischmann, B. (2013). Convening Cultural Commons. Oxford University Press. (Forthcoming).

2 See Fuster Morell, M. (2010). Governance of online creation communities. Provision of infrastructure for the building of digital commons. Social and Political Science Department. (PhD thesis). European University Institute (Florence). Retrieved from http://www.onlinecreation.info/http://www.onlinecreation.info/outline_design

3 See Fuster Morell, M. (2010). Governance of online creation communities. Provision of infrastructure for the building of digital commons. Social and Political Science Department. (PhD thesis). European University Institute (Florence). Retrieved from http://www.onlinecreation.info/http://www.onlinecreation.info/outline_design

4 See Fuster Morell, M. (2013). Online creation communities viewed through the analyticalframework of the institutional analysis and development. Madison, M. J., Strandburg, K., & Frischmann, B. (2013). Convening Cultural Commons. Oxford University Press. (Forthcoming).

5 Fuster Morell, M. (2011). An introductory historical contextualization of online creation communities for the building of digital commons: The emergence of a free culture movement. Proceedings 7th International Conference on Internet, Law & Politics (IDP 2011): Net Neutrality and other challenges for the future of the Internet. Retrieved from http://edcp.uoc.edu/symposia/idp2011/proceedings/

Fuster Morell, M. (2013). Horizontes del procomun digital. Revista documentacion social.

6 See Fuster Morell, M. (2011, October). Rethinking government in the light of the emerging organisational principles of online collective action. In E. Aibar (Ed.) European Journal of ePractice. No 12. ISSN: 1988-625X. (pp. 81-93) Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/bslp3o7

7 Fuster Morell, M. (2011). An introductory historical contextualization of online creation communities for the building of digital commons: The emergence of a free culture movement. Proceedings 7th International Conference on Internet, Law & Politics (IDP 2011): Net Neutrality and other challenges for the future of the Internet. http://edcp.uoc.edu/symposia/idp2011/proceedings/

8 See an article of this work in English Fuster Morell, M. (2012). Composition of 15M Mobilization in Spain: FreeCulture Movement a layer of 15M ecosystem movement. 'Occupy' special edition. Social Movement Studies,Volume 11, Issue 3-4. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14742837.2012.710323

9 See the book, Fuster Morell, M, Wainwright, H. & Berlinguer, M. (2007). Rethinking political organisation in an age of movements and networks. Rome: XL edizioni.

10 See Fuster Morell, M. & Subirats, J. (2012). Crisis de representación y de participación. ¿Son las comunidades virtuales nuevas formas de agregación y participación ciudadana?. En J. M. Robles (Coord). Practicas políticas y nuevas tecnologías: Participación política digital en España. Arbor. Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura. CSIC. Vol. 188 – N 756. julio-agosto (2012). (pp.641-656). Madrid. Retrieved from http://arbor.revistas.csic.es/index.php/arbor/article/viewArticle/1491

11 Berlinguer, M., Martinez, R., Fuster Morell, M. J. Subirats. (2013) Modelos emergentes de sostenibilidad de procomunes audiovisuales. Teknokultura. Revista de Cultura Digi tal y Movimientos Sociales. Retrieved from http://teknokultura.net/index.php/tk/article/view/82

12 Fuster Morell, M. (2011). The Unethics of Sharing: Wikiwashing. In W. Sützl & F. Stalder (Ed.). International Review of Information Ethics: Special issue: Ethics of Sharing. Vol. 15 September 2011. Retrieved from http://www.i-r-i-e.net/inhalt/015/015-Morell.pdf

13 Project: Techno-social platform for sustainable models and value generation incommons-based peer production in the Future Internet. Presented at ICT Call 10 FP7-ICT-2013-10

14 Laniado, D. Castillo, C., Kaltenbrunner, A., and Fuster Morell, M. (2012) Emotions and dialogue in a peer-production community: the case of Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration, WikiSym'12. Linz. Retrieved from http://airwiki.ws.dei.polimi.it/images/b/b7/Emotions_and_dialogue_in_Wikipedia_2012.pdf

15 See Fuster Morell, M. (2010). Governance of online creation communities. Provision of infrastructure for the building of digital commons. Social and Political Science Department. (PhD thesis). European University Institute (Florence). Retrieved from http://www.onlinecreation.info/http://www.onlinecreation.info/outline_design

16 Principal investigator. Financial entities: France Telecom Recherche & développement. Project: Wireless technology: Neighbors collaborative uses at the Spain. From April to November 2005.

17 Principal investigator. Institute of Government and Public Policy. Autonomous University of Barcelona. Funding entity: Call 2012 of the National Program of Fundamental Research of the VI National Plan I+D+i. Spain. Project: Information,cultureandknowledge:Newcitizens’ practices,newpublicpolicies.AcasecomparisonofSpainandUnitedStates(SindeLawversusSOPALaw). From January 2013 to 2015.

18 Research project: Civic engagement and ICTs. Bangalore center for Internet & society.

19 See www.fcforum.net and www.digital-commons.net

20 See http://p2pfoundation.net/Pro_Commons_Cat_Hub

Publications

Thesis

Fuster Morell, M. (2010). Governance of online creation communities. Provision of infrastructure for the building of digital commons. Social and Political Science Department. (PhD thesis). European University Institute (Florence). Retrieved from http://www.onlinecreation.info/http://www.onlinecreation.info/outline_design

Articles in peer-reviewed journals

Fuster Morell, M. (2012). Composition of 15M Mobilization in Spain: Free Culture Movement a layer of 15M ecosystem movement. 'Occupy' special edition. Social Movement Studies,Volume 11, Issue 3-4. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14742837.2012.710323

Fuster Morell, M. & Subirats, J. (2013, April). Gobierno abierto y políticas publicas. Los dilemas de un proceso inevitable. Telos cuadernos de comunicación e innovación. Fundación Telefónica. Numero 94. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/bratooq

Fuster Morell, M. & Subirats, J. (2012). Crisis de representación y de participación. ¿Son las comunidades virtuales nuevas formas de agregación y participación ciudadana?. En J. M. Robles (Coord). Practicas políticas y nuevas tecnologías: Participación política digital en España. Arbor. Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura. CSIC. Vol. 188 – N 756. julio-agosto (2012). (pp. 641-656). Madrid. Retrieved from http://arbor.revistas.csic.es/index.php/arbor/article/viewArticle/1491

Fuster Morell, M. (2013). Horizontes del procomun digital. Revista documentacion social. (Forthcoming).

Berlinguer, M., Martinez, R., Fuster Morell, M. J. Subirats. (2013). Models emergents de sostenibilitat del procomu audiovisual. Quaders del Consell Audiovisual Catala. Juny de 2013 (Forthcoming) .

Berlinguer, M., Martinez, R., Fuster Morell, M. J. Subirats. (2013) Modelos emergentes de sostenibilidad de procomunes audiovisuales. Teknokultura. Revista de Cultura Digital y Movimientos Sociales. Retrieved from http://teknokultura.net/index.php/tk/article/view/82/pdf

Fuster Morell, M. J. Subirats. (2013) Cambio social, cambio tecnológico. ¿Hacia un nuevo escenario de formación y elaboración de políticas publicas?. REIS: Revista Española de investigaciones sociológicas. (Forthcoming)

Fuster Morell, M. (2011). Acción colectiva a través de redes online: Comunidades de Creación Online para la construcción de bienes públicos digitales. Redes: Revista de Estudios para el Desarrollo Social de la Comunicación. No 6 (2011). Retrieved from http://www.revista-redes.com/index.php/revista-redes/article/view/202

Fuster Morell, M. (2011). The Unethics of Sharing: Wikiwashing. In W. Sützl & F. Stalder (Ed.). International Review of Information Ethics: Special issue: Ethics of Sharing. Vol. 15 September 2011. Retrieved from http://www.i-r-i-e.net/inhalt/015/015-Morell.pdf

Fuster Morell, M. (2011, October). Rethinking government in the light of the emerging organisational principles of online collective action. In E. Aibar (Ed.) European Journal of ePractice. No 12. ISSN: 1988-625X. (pp. 81-93) Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/bslp3o7

Fuster Morell, M. (2011). Advantages, Challenges and New Frontiers in Using Information Communication Technologies in Societal and Social Movement Research. Journal tripleC i(i): Cognition, communication, co-operation. Special Issue: ICTs and Society - A New Transdiscipline? . Advantages, Challenges and New Frontiers in Using Information Communication Technologies in Societal and Social Movement Research. Vol 9, No 2 ISSN 1726-670X. Retrieved from http://triple-c.at/index.php/tripleC/article/view/200

Fuster Morell, M.?(2011). Book review: Reagle, J. R. (2010) 'Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of Wikipedia'. MIT Press: Cambridge. Journal?Information, Communication and Society. Routledge. ISSN: 1369-118X. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369118X.2011.602092

Fuster Morell, M.; Hill, B. M. (2010). Socio-political approaches to open collaboration. Proceeding WikiSym '10 Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital library. Retrieved fromhttp://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1832772.1832808

Fuster Morell, M. (2010). La participazione nella comunità di creazione online. Participazione come eco-sistema. I casi di Openesf.net i Wikipedia. Politica dil dirito. Il Molino nº: 2, September 2010 (Italy). (pp. 515-544). Impact factor: Journal Indexed in DoGi-Dottrina Giuridica, Articoli italiani di periodici accademici (AIDA), Catalogo italiano dei periodici (ACNP). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/9damayc

Fuster Morell, M. (2009). Action research: mapping the nexus of research and political action. Interface Journal. Issue one (1). (pp. 21-45). Retrieved from http://interfacejournal.nuim.ie/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/interface-issue-1-1-pp21-45-Fuster.pdf

Fuster Morell, M. (2002). Antropologia i politica: Una bibliografia. Revista d’etnografia de Catalunya. Nº 21, Departament de cultura de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona.

Edition Special Academic Journals

Fuster Morell, M. (2012). Special section: A new wave of European mobilizations?. “The season of revolutions: the Arab Spring. Interface: A journal for and about social movements. Issue 4/1. Retrieved from http://www.interfacejournal.net/2012/11/interface-volume-4-issue-2-for-the-global-emancipation-of-labour/

Aibar, E., & Fuster Morell, M. (ed.). (2012). Special issue: Wikipedia research. Introduction. Journal Digithum: Les humanitats en l'era digital. Retrieved from http://digithum.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/digithum/

Conference paper

Laniado, D., Castillo, C., Kaltenbrunner, A., Fuster Morell, M. (2012) Emotions and dialogue in a peer-production community: the case of Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration, WikiSym'12. Linz. Retrieved from http://airwiki.ws.dei.polimi.it/images/b/b7/Emotions_and_dialogue_in_Wikipedia_2012.pdf

Fuster Morell, M. (2009) Politics of technology and participation at the Social Forum Process. Panel: Mobilising on the Web: Between old and new practices. European Consortium for Political research (ECPR). Postdam. From 10th to 12th of September 2009. Retrieved from http://internet-politics.cies.iscte.pt/IMG/pdf/ECPRPotsdamFuster.pdf

Book chapters

Fuster Morell, M. (2013) Digital commons. At D'alisa, G. Demaria, F. & Kallis, G. (2013). Degrowth: a vocabulary for a new paradigm. Routledge / Earthscan. (Forthcoming).

Fuster Morell, M. (2013). Online creation communities viewed through the analytical framework of the institutional analysis and development. Madison, M. J., Strandburg, K., & Frischmann, B. (2013). Convening Cultural Commons. Oxford University Press. (Forthcoming)

Fuster Morell, M. (2013). The ambivalence of openness. The Open Book. Open Knowledge Foundation. (pp. 76-79) Retrieved from http://openbook.okfn.org/

Fuster Morell, M. (2012). Influence of free culture movement into 15M mobilization in Spain. Perugorría, I. and Tejerina, B. 15M. (forthcoming)

Fuster Morell, M. (2012). Derechos urbanos digitales y políticas públicas en la era digital. En Josep Maria Montaner and Joan Subirats (Ed.). Repensar les politiques Urbanes. Apunts per a l’agenda urbana. Diputacio de Barcelona: Barcelona.

Fuster Morell, M. y Subirats, J. (2012) Políticas locales en la sociedad 2.0 movilizada. Canal, R. et al. Noves Polítiques Locals. Editorial Icària: Barcelona.

Fuster Morell, M (2010). Participation in Online Creation Communities: Ecosystemic Participation?. Conference Proceedings of JITP 2010: The Politics of Open Source (p. 270). Retrieved from http://scholarworks.umass.edu/jitpc2010/1

Fuster Morell, M. (2011). An Introductory Historical Contextualization of Online Creation Communities for the Building of Digital Commons: The Emergence of a Free Culture Movement. In Hellmann, S., Frischmuth, P., Auer, S. & Dietrich, D. (ed.). OKCon 2011. Open Knowledge Conference Proceedings of the 6th Open Knowledge Conference Berlin, Germany, June 30 & July 1, 2011. Universität Leipzig, Germany and Technical University Berlin, Germany. Retrieved from http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-739/

Fuster Morell, M. (2011). Wikipedia & Research: The innovative character of Wikipedia research and the new challenges (and opportunities) associated with it innovative character. In Hellmann, S., Frischmuth, P., Auer, S. & Dietrich, D. (ed.). OKCon 2011. Open Knowledge Conference Proceedings of the 6th Open Knowledge Conference Berlin, Germany, June 30 & July 1, 2011. Universität Leipzig, Germany and Technical University Berlin, Germany. Retrieved from http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-739/

Fuster Morell, M. (2012). El surgimiento del concepto de participación en entornos en línea: Lecciones y retos para las experiencias de democracia digital . (p. 139-203). en E. Campos y I. Ramos (Ed.). La ciudadanía en 3D: democracia deliberativa digital. Un análisis exploratorio. Madrid: Fundación IDEAS.

Fuster Morell, M. (2012). Emerging conception of participation and democracy in online settings: Lessons and challenges for digital democracy experiences. (p. 129-188). In E. Campos and I. Ramos (Ed.). 3D Citizen. Madrid: Fundación IDEAS.

Fuster Morell, M. (2012) E-Research Collaboration of International Scope in Social and Political Sciences: Scale and Complexity Linkage with the Requirement of Physical Encounters. In Juan, A. Daradoumis, T., Roca Sales, M., Grasman, S. & J. Faulin (Eds) (2012). Collaborative and Distributed E-Research: Innovations in Technologies, Strategies and Applications. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global. (pages 330-346). Retrieved from http://www.igi- global.com/book/collaborative-distributed-research/58272 Open access

Fuster Morell, M. (2011). An introductory historical contextualization of online creation communities for the building of digital commons: The emergence of a free culture movement. Proceedings 7th International Conference on Internet, Law & Politics (IDP 2011): Net Neutrality and other challenges for the future of the Internet. Retrieved from http://edcp.uoc.edu/symposia/idp2011/proceedings/

Fuster Morell, M. (2011). The Wikimedia Foundation and the Governance of Wikipedia's Infrastructure: Historical Trajectories and its Hybrid Character. In Lovink, G., Tkacz, N. & Roberts, I. (eds). Critical Point of View Reader, Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.networkcultures.org/_uploads/%237reader_Wikipedia.pdf

Fuster Morell, M. (2011). Participacion en communidades online y democracia radical. En A. Calle, Democracia Radical. Entre vínculos y utopías. (pp. 129-148). Barcelona: Icaria Editorial.

Fuster Morell, M. (2010). La governance dei commons digitali: Wikipedia e il World Social Forum. A A. C. Freschi e S. Franceschini (Coord.). E-democracy 2.0 - Istituzioni, cittadini, nuove reti: un lessico possibile. (pp. 69-76). Quaderni della Participacione. Regione Emilia – Romagna.

Fuster Morell, M. (2009, June) ‘Methodological and Theoretical challenges and potentials of studying participation in online communities for the building of digital commons: Wikipedia and the Social Forums. Proceedings conference Shaping Europe in a Globalized World: Protest Movements and the Rise of a Transnational Civil Society. Zurich, Switzerland. (pp. 23–26).

Fuster Morell, M. (2008). Social Forums and Technology: Hypothesis on why online communities promoted by Social Forums don’t easily scale up. In M. Fuster Morell (2008). Networked Politics and Technology: A reader. School of Information University of California Berkeley, 6th & 7th December 2008. Retrieved from http://www.networked-politics.info/wp- content/uploads/2008/11/socialforum_technology_mayofustermorell_berkeleyedited.doc

Fuster Morell, M. (2008). Instrumentos tecno-políticos. En Wainwright, H., Berlinguer, M., Fuster Morell, M., & Subirats, J. (Colectivo politica en red) (Ed.). Repensar la politica en la era de los movimientos y las redes. Barcelona: Icaria Editorial. ISBN 978847426946

Fuster Morell, M. (2007). Strumenti techno-politici. A H. Wainwright, M. Berlinguer, M. Fuster Morell, and J. Subirats. Networked Politics: Ripensare l'organizzazione politica in un'epoca di movimenti e reti. Rome: XL edizioni.

Fuster Morell, M. (2007). Techno-political tools. In M. Fuster Morell, H. Wainwright, and M. Berlinguer. (2007). Rethinking political organisation in an age of movements and networks. Rome: XL Edizioni.

Fuster Morell, M. (2007). The new web communities and political culture. In M. Fuster Morell, H. Wainwright, J. Subirats, and M. Berlinguer (Ed.) (2007). Networked Politics: Rethinking political organization in an age of movements and networks. (pp. 58 - 60). Seminar reader, Berlin, June 2007. Transfrom! Italia, Transnational Institute - New Politics project, Institut de Govern i Polítiques Públiques and Euromovements.

Fuster Morell, M. (2007). Strumenti tecno-politici. A Transform! Italia. Parole di una nuova politica. (pp. 113-121). Roma: XL edizioni.

Books

Fuster Morell, M. & Subirats, J. (2012). Més enllà d'Internet com a eina "martell” - eina de la vella política: Cap un nou Policy Making?. Els casos del Moviment de Cultura Lliure i pel Procomú Digital i el 15M a Catalunya (Beyond the Internet as a tool "hammer" - tool of the old politics: Towards a New Policy Making?. Cases the Free Culture Movement and the digital commons and 15M in Catalonia). Research report. Institute de Govern i Politiques Publiques (UAB) per l'Escola d'Administracio Publica de Catalunya. (139 pages). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/HhGzcJ

Wainwright, H., Berlinguer, M., Fuster Morell, M., & Subirats, J. (Ed.) (Colectivo politica en red) (2008). Repensar la politica en la era de los movimientos y las redes. Barcelona: Icaria Editorial. ISBN 978847426946

Fuster Morell, M, Wainwright, H. & Berlinguer, M. (2007). Rethinking political organisation in an age of movements and networks. Rome: XL edizioni. I

Wainwright, H., Berlinguer, M., Fuster Morell, M., & Subirats, J. (2007). Networked Politics: Ripensare l'organizzazione politica in un'epoca di movimenti e reti. Rome: XL edizioni.

Fuster Morell, M et at. (Col.lectiu Investigacció) (2005). Recerca activista i moviments socials. Barcelona: El Viejo Topo.

Fuster Morell, M. & Duran, E. (Grup d'Acció Glocal) (Ed). (2004). Guia útil per la Transformació Social a Catalunya. Barcelona: Edicions Col.lectives.

e-books or online repositories

Fuster Morell, M. (Ed.) (2009). Organizational principles and political implications of free culture: A reader. 1st International forum on free culture. Barcelona, 30th October - 1st November 2009. Retrieved from http://www.networked-politics.info/?page_id=212

Fuster Morell, M. (Ed.) (2008). Networked Politics and technology: A reader. School of information. University of California, Berkeley, 6th & 7th December 2008. Retrieved from http://www.networked-politics.info/?page_id=168

Fuster Morell, M., Wainwright, H., Subirats, J., & Berlinguer, M. (Ed.). (2007). Networked Politics: Rethinking political organization in an age of movements and networks. Seminar reader, Berlin, June 2007. Transfrom! Italia, Transnational Institute – New Politics project, Institut de Govern i Polítiques Públiques, and Euromovements. Retrieved from http://www.onlinecreation.info/wp- content/uploads/2007/12/readerberlinnp02.pdf

Fuster Morell, M., Wainwright, H., & Berlinguer, M. (Ed.) (2006). Networked Politics: An inquiry into political organisation in an era of movements and networks. Seminar reader, Barcelona, October 2006. Transfrom! Italia, Transnational Institute - New Politics project, Institut de Govern i Polítiques Públiques and developed in cooperation with Euromovements. Retrieved from http://www.onlinecreation.info/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/readerbarcelonaii.pdf

Fuster Morell, M., & Hache, A. (Ed.) (2005). Activist research: practice(s) to challenge the investigaction. Barcelona: Editions Euromovements online. Retrieved from http://www.euromovements.info/html/index.htm

Reyes, O., Wainwright, H., Fuster Morell, M. & Berlinguer, M. (Ed.) (2004). European Social Forum: Debating its challenges for its future. Barcelona: Edicions Euromovements online. Retrieved from http://www.euromovements.info/newsletter/

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