Digital Labor Resources

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= Digital Tech/Labor Resources & Reading List


This list, entitled "Digital Tech/Labor Resources & Reading List for Journalists (and Everyone!)", was created by Karen Gregory. [1]

Resource List

Online Resources:

(Start here!) Digital Labor Conference Speakers’ Videos:

Triple C: Theorising Digital Labour and Virtual Work - Definitions, Dimensions and Forms

CUNY Digital Labor Working Group Blog:

Trebor Scholz & Frank Pasquale in Conversation on Digital Labor

Digital Labor: Ephemera: Workers, Authors, Citizens

Belabored at Dissent Magazine with Sarah Jaffe:

Miriam Posner (UCLA)’s Digital Labor, Materiality, and Urban Space, Winter 2014

Nakamura, Fernandez, and Balsamo, “Feminism, Technology, and Race”:


Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology

Governing Algorithms Reading List:

Antonio A. Casilli and Yann Moulier-Boutang in conversation on Radio France Culture “Digital labor : portrait de l'internaute en travailleur exploité” (Dec 12, 2012)

Sarah Roberts speaks with NPR about the labor of Commercial Content Moderation:

Data and Society

PS Mag: “The future of work and workers” series


Abreu, Amelia. 2014. “Quantify Everything: A Dream of a Feminist Data Future.”

Adkins, Lisa. 1995. Gendered Work: Sexuality, Family, and the Labour Market. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Aneesh, Aneesh. 2006. Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalization. Durham: Duke University Press.

Arvidsson, Adam. 2011. “General Sentiment: How Value and Affect Converge in the Information Economy.” Sociological Review 59:39–59.

Baym, Nancy. 2010. Personal connections in the digital age. Malden, MA: Polity Press.

Beller, Jonathan. 2006. The Cinematic Mode of Production: Attention Economy and the Society of the Spectacle. New Hampshire: University Press of New England

Berardi, Franco “Bifo,” Francesca Cadel, Giuseppina Mecchia, et al. 2009. The Soul at Work: From Alienation to Autonomy. Los Angeles: Semiotexte.

Berry, David. 2014. Critical Theory and the Digital. New York: Bloomsbury.

Bernstein, Michael. 2015. “The future of work: Working for the machine”

Blas, Zach. 2012. “Imperceptibly Dirty.” No More Potlucks. Issue 23: Dirt, ed. Heather Davis

Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, E. 2007. The New Spirit of Capitalism. (G. Elliott, Trans.). Verso.

Boydston, Jeanne. 1994. Home and Work: Housework, Wages, and the Ideology of Labor in the Early Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Braverman, H. 1998. Labor and monopoly capital: the degradation of work in the twentieth century. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Brecher, Jeremy. 2014. Strike! Oakland, Calif.: PM Press.

Browne, Simone. 2015. Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Caffentzis, C. G. 2013. In letters of blood and fire: work, machines, and the crisis of capitalism. Oakland, Calif.: PM Press.

Cagle, Susie. 2014. “The Case Against Sharing.”

Cardon, D. and Casilli A. A. 2015, Qu’est-ce que le digital labor?, Paris, INA Editions.

Casilli A. A. 2015, “Le digital labor est conçu pour ne pas avoir l’apparence d’un travail”, Jef Klak, Jan. 4,

Casilli, A. A. 2015, “Digital Labor : travail, technologies et conflictualités”. In: Id. & D. Cardon, Qu'est-ce que le digital labor ?, Paris, INA Editions, pp.10-42,

Champaign, Patrick. The View From the Media.

Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong. 2006. Control and Freedom: Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Clough, P. and Hailey, J. (eds) 2007. The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Crawford, K. and Gray, M.L. (eds) 2014. “Big Data, Big Questions”, special section in the International Journal of Communication, Vol. 8.

Crawford, K. 2013. “The Hidden Biases of Big Data”, Harvard Business Review, April 1.

Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. 1985. More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technologies from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York: Basic Books.

Cowie, Jefferson. 2010. Staying Alive: The 1970s and the Last Days of the Working Class. New York: The New Press.

Culter, Jonathan. 2004. Labor’s Time: Shorter Hours, the UAW, and the Struggle for American Unionism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Daniels, Jessie. 2009. Cyber Racism: White Supremacy Online and the New Attack on Civil Rights. Lanham, Maryland: Rowan and Littlefield.

Dunbar-Hester, Christina. Low Power to the People: Pirates, Protest, and Politics in FM Radio Activism. Cambridge: MIT PRess.

Davies, William. 2014. The Limits of Neoliberalism: Authority, Sovereignty, and the Logic of Competition. London: Sage Publications.

Dyer-Witherford, Nick. 1999. Cyber-Marx: Cycles and Circuits of Struggle in High Technology Capitalism. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.

Deleuze, Giles. 1992. “Postscript on the Societies of Control” _OCTOBER_ 59, Winter MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 3-7.

Deuze, Mark. 2007. Media Work. First ed. Cambridge: Polity.

Federici, Sylvia. 2012. Revolution at point zero: housework, reproduction, and feminist struggle. Oakland, CA; Brooklyn, NY; London: PM Press ; Common Notions : Autonomedia ; Turnaround.

Federici, Sylvia. 1969. “Wages Against Housework”.

Federici, Silvia. 2008. “Precarious Labor: A Feminist Viewpoint.” In the Middle of a Whirlwind.

Friedman, B. and H. Nissenbaum. 1996. ‘Bias in computer systems’, ACM Transactions on Information Systems 14: 330-347.

Fuchs, Christian. 2010. “Labor in Informational Capitalism and on the Internet.” Information Society 26(3):179–96.

Gabry, Jennifer. 2011. Digital Rubbish: A Natural History of Electronics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Gajjala, Radhika. 2012. Cyberculture and the Subaltern: Weavings of the Virtual and Real. Lexington Press

Golumbia, David. 2009. The Cultural Logic of Computation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Greene, D. and Joseph, D. “The Digital Spatial Fix”.

Gregory, Karen. 2015. “Weird Solidarities”. DIS Magazine.

Gregory, Karen. 2015. “Good Wives: Algorithmic Architectures as Metabolization.” Boundary 2

Gregg, Melissa. 2013. Work’s Intimacy. New York: Wiley.

Gregg, Melissa. 2008. “The Normalisation of Flexible Female Labour in the Information Economy.” Feminist Media Studies 8(3):285–99

Guillaud, Hubert 2014. “Digital Labor : comment répondre à l’exploitation croissante du moindre de nos comportements ?”, Le Monde, InternetActu, Dec 20,

Hardt, M. 1999. “Affective Labor.” boundary 2 26(2):89–100.

Harvey, David. 1991. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry Into the Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Harvey, David. 2001. “The Geopolitics of Capitalism.” In Spaces of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography, 312–344. New York: Routledge.

Hochschild, A. 2013. The Outsourced Self: What Happens When We Pay Others to Live Our Lives for Us. New York: Picador Press.

Howard, Dorothy. 2015. “Feed My Feed”. Rhizome.

Hunnicutt, Benjamin. 1990. Work Without End: Abandoning Shorter Hours for the Right to Work. Philadelphia: Temple Press.

Huws, Ursula. 2003. Cybertariat: Virtual Work in a Real World. New York: Monthly Review Foundation.

Huws, Ursula. 2013. Labor in the Digital Economy: The Cybertariat Comes of Age. New York: Monthly Review Foundation.

Irani, Lilly. 2013. The Cultural Work of Microwork. New Media and Society, 17(5), 720-739.

Irani, Lilly. 2015. Justice for “Data Janitors.” Public Books. Jan 15.

Jeong, Sarah. 2013. Unions and Racism.

Jones, AC. 2010. “Rank and File Opposition in the Late 1970s.” in Rebel Rank and File. London: Verso Books.

Katznelson, Ira. 2014. Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time. New York: Liveright Publishing.

Kittur, Aniket, Nickerson, Jeffrey, Bernstein, Michael, Gerber, Elizabeth, Shaw, Aaron, Zimmerman, John, Lease Matthew, and Horton John. “The Future of Crowd Work”

Kosner, Anthony Wing. 2015. “Google Cabs and Uber Bots Will Challenge Jobs ‘Below The API’.” Forbes

Levy, Karen. 2015. “The Future of Work: What Isn’t Counted Counts.”

Losh, Liz. “Beyond Biometrics: Feminist Media Theory Looks at Selfiecity”

Losse, Kate. 2012. The Boy Kings: A Journey into the Heart of the Social Network. Free Press.

Lovink, Geert. 2012. Networks Without a Cause: A Critique of Social Media (1st ed.). Polity.

Lury, Celia. 2004. Brands: The Logos of the Global Economy. New York: Routledge.

Marwick, Alice. 2015. Status Update. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Martin, Randy. 2002. Financialization of Daily Life. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Marx, Karl. The Fragment on Machines. In The Grundrisse (pp. 690–712).

McMillan Cottom, Tressie. 2015. “Who Do you Think You Are? When Marginality Meets Academic Microcelebrity.” Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, Issue #7.

Mitropoulos, Angela. 2005. Precari-us?

Nakamura, L. and Chow-White, P and Nelson, A. (eds) 2011. Race After the Internet. New York: Routledge.

Noble, David. 1979. America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Noble, David. 1984. Forces of Production; A Social History of Industrial Automation. New York: Knopf.

Noble, David. 1995. Progress Without People: New Technology, Unemployment, and the Message of Resistance. New York: Between the Lines.

Noble, Safiya. 2013. “Google Search: Hyper-visibility as a Means of Rendering Black Women and Girls Invisible”. InVisible Culture: Issue 19.

Neff, Gina. 2012. Venture labor: work and the burden of risk in innovative industries. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Neilson, Brett, and Ned Rossiter. 2008. “Precarity as a Political Concept; or, Fordism as Exception.” Theory, Culture & Society 25(7/8):51–72.

O’Donovan, Caroline. 2015. “What a New Class of Worker Could Mean for the Future of Labor.”

O’Donovan, Caroline. 2015. “American Labor Unions are Falling Down on Digital Workers.”

Pasquale, Frank. 2015. Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Papacharissi, Zizi. 2010. A Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites. New York: Routledge.

Pierre J. and Alloing, C. 2015. “Questionner le digital labor par le prisme des émotions : le capitalisme affectif comme métadispositif?”, communication at the conference La communication numérique au cœur des sociétés : dispositifs, logiques de développement et pratiques, Grenoble, May 4-5,

Porterwood-Stacer, Laura. 2013. “Media refusal and conspicuous non-consumption: The performative and political dimensions of Facebook abstention.” New Media and Society. November 15:1041-1057

Resnikoff, Ned. 2015. “Unions Make Strides Among Silicon Valley Workforce.”

Ross, Andrew. 2009. Nice Work If You Can Get It: Life and Labor in Precarious Times. NYU Press.

Ross, Andrew. 2003. No Collar: The Humane Workplace and its Hidden Costs. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Sadowski, Jathan. 2013. “Civics for a Digital Age.” The Atlantic.

Sadowski, Jathan. 2014. “From mega machines to mega algorithms.” The New Inquiry

Scannell, Joshua. 2015. What can an algorithm do? DIS Magazine

Scholz, Trebor (ed). 2013. Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory. New York: Routledge.

Schüll, N. D. 2012. Addiction by design: Machine gambling in Las Vegas. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Seaver, Nick. 2013. Knowing Algorithms.

Shaviro, Steven. 2003. Connected, or, What it means to live in the network society. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Shaviro, Steven. 2010. Post-Cinematic Affect. Winchester: Zero.

Smythe, D.W. 1981. "Communications: Blindspot of Economics". In Melody, W.H., Salter, L., and Heyer, P. (Eds.). Culture, Communication and Dependency: The Tradition of H.A. Innis. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Taylor, Astra. 2014. The People’s Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Taylor, FW. 1911. “The Principles of Scientific Management.”

Terranova, Tiziana. 2000. “Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy”. Social Text, 18(2_63), 33.

Terranova, Tiziana. 2014. “Red stack attack! Algorithms, capital and the automation of the common.” EuroNomade. from

Thebault-Spieker, J., Terveen, L. G., & Hecht, B. (2015). Avoiding the South Side and the Suburbs: The Geography of Mobile Crowdsourcing Markets. In Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (pp. 265–275). ACM Press.

Thompson, E.P. 1966. The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Vintage Books.

Turner, Fred. 2006. From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, The Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism. Chicago: Chicago University Press .

Turfecki, Zeynep. 2014. “What Happens To #Ferguson Happens to Ferguson”

Uchitelle, Louis. 2007. The Disposable American: Layoffs and Their Consequences. New York: Vintage

Vaidhyanathan, Siva. 2011. The Googlization of Everything: And Why We Should Worry. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wacjman, Judy. 2015. Pressed for Time: The Acceleration of Life in Digital Capitalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Watters, Audrey. 2014. “Digital Labor and Geographies of Crisis.”

Wark, McKenzie. 2012. Telesthesia: Communication, Culture and Class. Cambridge: Polity.

Weeks, Kathi. 2011. The Problem with Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries T. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Weizenbaum, Joseph. 1976. Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co.

Wen, Shawn. 2014. “The Ladies Vanish.” The New Inquiry.

Winner, Langdon. 1989. The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wong, Julia Carrie. 2015. “Silicon Valley’s Low Wage Mess: How Apple Was Forced to Revamp its Subcontracting Scheme.”

Zuboff, Shoshana. 2015. “Disruption’s Tragic Flaw“


Otey v Crowdflower

McPherson v Google

O’Connor v Uber


This list was created by Karen Gregory. Please contact [email protected] if you would like to add a reference or cannot access something on the list and would like a copy.

Contributors to this list include:

Antonio Casilli @AntonioCasilli

J. Thebault-Spieker @jts__

Zachary Loeb @libshipwreck

Monica Mercado @monicalmercado

Naomi Rendina @NaomiRendina

Dan Greene @Greene_DM

Rochelle LaPlante @Rochelle

Paul-Olivier Dehaye @podehaye

More Information

Additional suggestions

Additional suggestions to be added into the list: d-more-1.2928720/the-hidden-social-reality-behind-digital-labour-1.2928772 [audio]