Diamond of Participation

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= facilitation methodology explained by Sam Kaner in his book.

Sam Kaner himself gives it the full title as the "Diamond of Participatory Decision-Making" (p.20) He credits the help of Lenny Lind, Catherine Toldi, Sarah Fisk and Duane Berger.


"The diamond is a map that points to three phases that groups pass through as they move from questions to insights. Groups begin with divergent thinking, sit for a while in the chaos and uncertainty of “The Groan Zone” and later move into convergent thinking."
( http://www.chriscorrigan.com/parkinglot/divergent-and-convergent-thinking/ )



From "Facilitator's Guide" 3rd edition page 364.


The diamond of participation is elaborated in Art of Hosting circles to what is called the "8 breaths" model, with 7 small diamonds inside one large one.


More Information

  1. Book. Facilitator's Guide to Participatory Decision-Making. Third Edition. Sam Kaner et al. Jossey-Bass, 2014.
  2. Convergent vs Divergent Reasoning