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Elizabeth Tunstall:

"In the context of policy and governance, one must define “design” at two-levels. These two levels are what Ric Grefé, executive director of AIGA, referred to at the AIGA 2003 National Meetings as design with a “big D” (i.e. uppercase D) and design with a ”little d” design (i.e. with a lowercase d). The first level is the general activity of “…devising courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones” (Simon 1969). The second level is both the process and the resultant artifacts, communications, experiences, and environments that originate from skillful choices about words, images, and forms through the formal elements of point, line, shape, texture, color, harmony, space, typography, pattern, materials, and movement. These two concepts of design enable one to distinguish between Design as a general human activity, and design as the occupational expertise of a class of people who define themselves as professional designers (i.e. people who make their primary livelihood from designing)... Design is a term used in the fields of political science, economics, and policy which is separate from how it is used the fields of design, technical communications, and usability." (

More Information

  1. See Policy Design
  2. According to User Ownership Theory, by Patrick Anderson: "Design is the combined Virtual Sources of any Object."