Darren Staloff on the World Historical Speculations of Arnold Toynbee
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- Intro: Arnold Toynbee on the Rhythms of History
- Video: John David Ebert on Arnold Toynbee's A Study of History
- Challenges to Toynbee's interpretations:
- An Interpretation of Universal History. José Ortega y Gasset.
- Response to Toynbee by Piritim Sorokin and Pieter Geyl: The Pattern of the Past; key thesis: civilizations are not the proper unit of study
- Also by Sorokin: Social Philosophies in an Age of Crisis, critiques of world historians including Toynbee