Creative Networks in Eastern Europe

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* Rasa Smite, Creative Networks, in the Rearview Mirror of Eastern European History. Institute of Network Cultures, Theory on Demand Issue no. 11, 2012.



about this publication:

"Creative Networks explores the dawn of the Internet culture in the age of network society from the perspective of Eastern Europe. From a theoretical angle the networks are introduced and interpreted as complex socio-technical systems. The author analyzes the development of these networked self-organized formations starting off with ‘virtual communities’ of ‘creative networks’, which emerged during the early phase of the Internet, up to the phenomena of today’s online ‘social networks’. Along with the translocal case studies of Nettime, Syndicate, Faces and Xchange networks (as well as with the other important facets of the 1990s network culture in Europe), the author studies also local community networking case of alternative and digital culture that evolved around E-Lab in the 1990s in Latvia. By focusing primarily on the network culture of 1990s, this study reflects those changes in the social structure of today’s society that are occurring under the process of socio-technical transformation.

Rasa Smite is an artist, curator-producer and network researcher who works with emerging media since mid-1990s.

The book is based on a dissertation by Rasa Smite, with the title “Creative Network Communities” and was defended in Riga Stradins University, February 2011. The book was first published in Latvian in Riga: RIXC and Liepaja: LiepU MPLab, 2011 (ISBN 978-9934-8229-0-2)" (

More Information

  • the book is now online:

- on the Institute for Network Culture blog: <>

- on issuu:


- on scribd:


- on lulu (where to order printed book - via their Printing on Demand service):