Cooperative Cities in the US
"She had published a paper on “Cooperative Cities” — i.e., places which engaged with and enabled the solidarity economy to varying degrees. She identified “developer” cities (Cleveland, Richmond CA, Rochester) where the advocacy was top-down. Other places were “endorser” cities (Austin, Berkeley, Boston, Philadelphia) where change worked from the bottom up via grassroots groups. A third group she described as “cultivator” cities (Madison, Minneapolis, NYC) where the dynamic worked in both directions."