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1. Dan Robles:

"“Cryptoequity,” as defined by Swarm ([1]) is an umbrella term that covers various applications of cryptographic ledger offerings.

These can include:

(1) Product presales in which the token serves as a coupon redeemable for a real world good (i.e. the Comic Book sale done via Swarm)

(2) Product sales in which the token is redeemable for some service in a decentralized network (i.e. Storj or Ethereum)

(3) Product sales which serve as a “subscription” or membership to some decentralized network (i.e. Swarm)

(4) Token which serves as a license to use some type of intellectual property, potentially with an attached legal contract (i.e. sales being conducted in the Swarm 5th of November launch)

(5) “Shares” serving as stock equivalent for organizations that have no legal entity (i.e. BitShares)

(6) Shares serving as stock for legal entities (i.e. Overstock/Medici)." (

2. Joel Dietz and Primavera de Filippi:

"Cryptoledgers provide a novel way of issuing secure and tradable tokens via a distributed networks.

Although sometimes described as “cryptocurrency,” implying that the use value of the tokens is closest to currency, there are numerous other potential applications of these tokens that range from stock equivalents to previously unimaginable forms.

Although generally referred to as “cryptoequity” they can be divided into the following categories:

(1) Shares in a project that serve as a function similar to stock, allowing participation in the decision making and participation in financial upside (i.e. BitShares)

(2) Tokens which represent ownership in something other than a company, for example intellectual property (i.e. @@ are there no examples yet?)

(3) Product tokens which are redeemable for some product, perhaps one consumable in the context of a decentralized technology (i.e. Ethereum)

(4) Access tokens which provide access to a particular set of benefits within a network, similar to a membership (i.e. Swarm)"


  • : crowdfunding with crypto-equity based shares and crowd due diligence
  • Koinify: crypto-funding platform for smart corporations

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