= rules created outside the statutory realm
Simon Zadek :
"The most effective examples of scaled-up responsible business practices are indeed the result of companies accepting that "civil regulation" - rules created outside the statutory realm - has become effective an means by which business can be held to account."
"In most instances, business only moves when it's forced to - and civil society has played and will continue to play an indispensable role here. The iconoclastic dynamism of Anita Roddick suggests that moral and political leadership can come from within the business community. But it was labour and human-rights campaigners who pressed for such initiatives as the Fair Labor Association and the voluntary principles for security and human rights; environmental activists whose work made possible the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Equator Principles. These initiatives, moreover, count in global markets. The FSC provides certified stewardship to over 20 million hectares of sustainable forests, and the Equator Principles apply social and environmental conditionality to an estimated 80% of cross-border project (infrastructure) financing." (http://www.opendemocracy.net/article/globalisation/philanthrocapitalism/civil_society_and_capitalism_a_new_landscape)
- Collaborative Standards Initiatives
- Report: Governing Collaboration: Making Partnerships Accountable for Delivering Development: provides a forensic examination of some of the accountability shortfalls of collaborative-standards initiatives, their implications and how best to overcome them.