Casey Fenton on the CouchSurfing Experience
Casey Fenton, founder of CouchSurfing, interviewed by What's Mine Is Yours author Rachel Botsman about trust and reputation, community decision-making, social entrepreneurship, and the future of travel.
Rachel Botsman: One of the themes I explore in my forthcoming book is how collaborative communities quickly form "trust between strangers." How did you create trust from the outset within the CouchSurfing community?
Casey Fenton: Right from the beginning, we wanted people who had never met each other (and who lived far away) to be able to trust one another. The question we tackled was, “How can we can create that trust via the Internet?” -- not a perfect translation from how we would create trust in the real life.
We were not exactly sure what would work, so we implemented different trust features on the site.
The first, and most important still today, are the prompts on our website to describe yourself and who you are. On most websites you have one box where you have to fill in a description. The majority of people are not able to describe themselves accurately; they are like a deer in headlights when they see this kind of question.
So we came up with a bunch of different open-ended questions that anyone could answer, but that would prompt people to share something deeper about themselves. Things that other people would read and get a sense of who that person really is -- their "personal philosophy," so to speak. For example, “Where did you grow up?” or "What are some of the most interesting things you have seen or done in your life?"’ This is clearly working, as people always say that the best measure of a person is just reading their profile.
The second mechanism is "vouching." There are a core group people who are already vouched for, and they can bring more people into that network if they have met them. We also have verification system based on people’s credit cards or bank accounts. And references are another important measure; after someone meets someone they leave them a reference.
We basically implemented various features that get to different angles on trust. People pick and choose which ones they want to pay attention to and work for them. They all combine together to give a holistic view on trust, which is probably how it works in real life too where you combine different points to make decisions on who you trust and who you don’t.
RB: Is there is something that surprises you about the level of trust that forms within your community, between people who have never met?
CF: Well that is a hard one for me, as I am right in the middle of it, so I see it every day and it seems so natural. But it constantly surprises me how it surprises other people. Questions we get a lot are, “How can people trust one another?” or “How can people go into each other’s homes when they have never met?”
An easy way to give people an answer is to refer to eBay. There was a day when it would have seemed like a crazy idea to send your goods to people you had never met. But they implemented different trust systems and it worked really well. And when you say it like that, people realize we have overcome the trust barrier through the CouchSurfing system. In fact, we are in the businesses of helping people understand just how trustworthy someone they have never met is. It is not our mission, but it is core to why we exist.
RB: There is a growing dialogue around the notion of "reputation" as a growing form of social currency. What are your thoughts on the idea that reputation will become a form of capital that determines what we can access and do?
CF: I think it is really important. I have seen it, where it can really help someone out or hurt them.
References are a concrete, recorded form of a reputation. In a traditional, location-based community, reputation exists because many people know each other and share information with one another about what they've learned about each member of the community. All of this compounds into a generally accepted perception of a person.
Part of what makes a reputation is that people trust the second-hand information that they receive because they trust the person they hear it from ("Oh, well Jen is totally laid back, so if Becky really rubbed her the wrong way, you know she was completely out of line!"). CouchSurfing was faced with the challenge of how to recreate that trust-of-source between people who have not and probably will never meet -- that is, reference leavers and future hosts/surfers.
Two things solve that:
- Accountability. No references are anonymous; every person who leaves information is held accountable for what they say. Therefore, reading people's references, you hook into a web of trust. You can see exactly who said what about this person, and click through to their profiles and evaluate their trustworthiness/personality. In the case of a negative ref, it allows the person to decide whether they think that, because they are similar to the person leaving the negative ref, they will have the same reaction to the person, or, because they are not similar to the person leaving the negative ref, they will not.
- Group consensus. Same as in a village, if one person said "that person's an upstanding father" and everyone else said "he's an abusive person," you would believe the majority. The public record aspect of the references allows people to evaluate whether a negative reference is a one-time disagreement or a pattern of behavior.
RB: Do you think people are conscious of their "reputation capital," or do they have to experience a loss to realize how important it is?
CF: I think the point you make about the loss is an important one. Once you experience not being to do something because of a bad interaction, you are far more careful in the future about your interactions with people.
Sometimes people are cavalier and don’t see the connection or ramification of their actions. Maybe in everyday life you might have had an altercation with somebody, such as a conversation that did not work out well, and you used to just go your separate ways. The worst that could happen is that person may speak badly about you, but it is not going to really going to affect your reputation in the long term. But in CouchSurfing somebody cannot just tell one person, but tell everybody about it. So the consequences are vastly different. It means you really have to go the extra mile in the way you interact with people.
RB: Most collaborative communities require a critical mass of users before they become valuable. How did you create this critical mass in at the very start of CouchSurfing?
CF: In the beginning what I felt we needed to do was seed the community with the “right kind of people.” I believed that the right kinds of people were "expressive," "colorful," and "curious," in the sense that they would want to look through profiles and think, “Wow, I want to meet that person!" Where we actually started was with Tribe.net and some of the Burning Man community. We literally announced, “Hey, there is new website called CouchSurfing, come check it out,” and 300 or 400 people signed-up in the first week. This group was all very expressive and bought into the values. Most importantly, they set the tone for the people who followed.
But now, CouchSurfing is for any kind of person.
RB: What was the moment when you realized how big CouchSurfing could become?
CF: I knew this tool would valuable for myself, but it was hard to know if it would be valuable to other people. I spent nearly four years wanting to make this dream a reality, and then finally I promised myself that I would not let one more year pass without giving it a try.
I was living in Alaska at the time and would program every night after work and on the weekends. And then when it was first launched as a beta in January 2003, people started to sign-up and I started to realize, this is interesting to other people. After the first year, when over 10,000 people all over the world had signed up, I had proven to myself that this is useful platform. And then it just grew from there.
When the CouchSurfing system crashed in June 2006, and then was rapidly rebuilt by the community itself -- that was a turning point in the organization." (http://shareable.net/blog/future-travel)