4P Model of Ownership and Governance

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As used in Quebec and the French-speaking world ?

By Jean-Pierre Girard:

"In French we say the 4P:

  • Propriété (ownership in the hand of members who are also the users or the workers or a mix depending of the co-op status);
  • Pouvoir (1 member, 1 vote);
  • Partage des résultats (the way the surplus is sharing) and
  • Patrimoine inalienable (this refers mainly to indivisible reserve…)

(email March 2016)