Tribes of Intelligence
Beginning in the 1990's when the modern intelligence reform began, the equation of national intelligence with the US government's secret intelligence community began to be questioned.
As early as 1992, and consistent with the emergence of the debate over Internet on-ramps for all instead of a handful of research organizations, it was understood that national intelligence as a concept should be expanded to include schools, universities, libraries, businesses, private investigators and information brokers, the media, government, defense, and the now contextually much less important (secret) government intelligence communities.
More recently, eight specific tribes have been identified that must come together to share the information commons and to contribute to one another's knowledge development. They are:
Academic Civil Society (including religions and labor unions) Commerce Government (including local and state) Law Enforcement Media Military Non-Government/Non-Profit
[1992 E3i: Ethics, Ecology, Evolution, & intelligence (An Alternative Paradigm) 1992 E3i: Ethics, Ecology, Evolution, & intelligence (An Alternative Paradigm)]