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1. excerpt from Wikipedia: Transmodernism (2020):

“Transmodernism is a philosophical and cultural movement which was founded by Argentinian-Mexican philosopher Enrique Dussel. He refers to himself as a transmodernist and wrote a series of essays criticising the postmodern theory and advocating a transmodern way of thinking. Transmodernism is a development in thought following the period of postmodernism; as a movement, it was also developed from modernism, and, in turn, critiques modernity and postmodernity, viewing them as the end of modernism.

Transmodernism is influenced by many philosophical movements. Its emphasis on spirituality was influenced by the esoteric movements during the Renaissance. Transmodernism is influenced by transcendentalism and idealises different figures from the mid-19th century United States, most notably Ralph Waldo Emerson. Transmodernism is related to different aspects of Marxist philosophy, having common ground with dissident Roman Catholic liberation theology.

The philosophical views of the transmodernism movement contain elements of both modernism and postmodernism. Transmodernism has been described as "new modernism" and its proponents admire avant-garde styles. It bases much of its core beliefs on the integral theory of Ken Wilber, those of creating a synthesis of "pre-modern", "modern" and "postmodern" realities.

In transmodernism, there is a place for both tradition and modernity, and it seeks as a movement to re-vitalise and modernise tradition rather than destroy or replace it. The honouring and reverence of antiquity and traditional lifestyles is important in transmodernism, unlike modernism or postmodernism. Transmodernism criticises pessimism, nihilism, relativism and the counter-Enlightenment. It embraces, to a limited extent, optimism, absolutism, foundationalism and universalism. It has an analogical way of thinking, viewing things from the outside rather than the inside.

As a movement, transmodernism puts an emphasis on spirituality, alternative religions, and transpersonal psychology. Unlike postmodernism, it disagrees with the secularisation of society, putting an emphasis on religion, and it criticises the rejection of worldviews as false or of no importance. Transmodernism places an emphasis on xenophily and globalism, promoting the importance of different cultures and cultural appreciation. It seeks for a worldview on cultural affairs and is anti-Eurocentric and anti-imperialist.

Environmentalism, sustainability and ecology are important aspects of the transmodern theory. Transmodernism embraces environmental protection and stresses the importance of neighbourhood life, building communities as well as order and cleanliness. It accepts technological change, yet only when its aim is that of improving life or human conditions. Other aspects of transmodernism are those of democracy and listening to the poor and suffering.

Transmodernism takes strong stances on feminism, health care, family life and relationships. It promotes the emancipation of women and female rights, yet also promotes several traditional moral and ethical family values; the importance of the family is particularly stressed. Transmodernism is a minor philosophical movement in comparison to postmodernism and is relatively new to the Northern Hemisphere, but it has a large set of leading figures and philosophers. Enrique Dussel is its founder. Ken Wilber, the inventor of Integral Theory, argues from a transpersonal point of view. Paul Gilroy, a cultural theorist, has also "enthusiastically endorsed" transmodern thinking, and Ziauddin Sardar, an Islamic scholar, is a critic of postmodernism and in many cases adopts a transmodernist way of thinking.”


"Transmodernism is a development in thought following the periodization of postmodernity. It sees postmodernity, or hypermodernity as the conclusion or culmination of modernism, and critiques modernism and postmodernism on material, social, and spiritual viewpoints.

Transmodernity consists of a set of criticisms aimed at theories it perceives as advocating relativism, pessimism, nihilism, and counter-Enlightenment, by embracing with a limited capacity foundationalism, absolutism, optimism, and universalism.

It draws elements from both modernism and postmodernism, and can therefore be seen as an amended and more tolerant form of modernization. Transmodernity is a loose term describing a development of thought that seeks a synthesis of the best of 'pre-modern,' 'modern,' and 'postmodern' reality.

Transmodernism appears to be in part influenced by the esoteric movements that sprang from the Renaissance. It is also influenced by the Transcendental movement and admires the American philosophy of mid-nineteenth century writers like Emerson and the Transcendentalists. Transmodernism often continues today in the rise of new religions and spiritualism. Its tendencies are also felt in humanitic and transpersonal psychology. It is thought to be 'leading edge and often subject to change'.

Transmodernism reacts against both modernism and postmodernism by opposing the wholesale secularization of society. It criticizes the rejection of all traditional worldviews and their truths as unproven, false, or of no importance. It encompasses social movements confluent with traditional systems of philosophy, religion, and morality. These movements often find themselves at odds with modernism and postmodernism, yet the Transmodernism sees tradition as self-propelled and adaptable at its own independent pace. There is room for both modernity and tradition." (


1. The emerging Transmodern or Integral Culture is summarized by Paul H. Ray as follows:

  1. Ecological sustainability, beyond environmentalism
  2. Globalism: Two of the top values for Cultural Creatives are xenophilism (love of travel to foreign places, of foreigners and the exotic)
  3. Feminism, women's issues, relationships, family
  4. Altruism, self-actualization, alternative health care, spirituality and spiritual psychology
  5. Well-developed social conscience and social optimism

— adapted from the Wikipedia article on Transmodernism, as around 2010

2. See the table proposed by Michael Mehaffy at: Modernism Post-Modernism Transmodernism