Sources of P2P Theory
How do we arrive at hypotheses, interpretations and conclusions in the P2P Foundation, and in particular how did we arrive at our theoretical framing? We will focus on the practical and concrete research and experiences elsewhere, but here we focus on the sources of our theoretical insights, by going through the key books of the most significant authors who influenced us. As a collective, there will be many more sources than listed here, but these reflects the initial and ongoing work by Michel Bauwens, as co-producing the theoretical insights in collaboration with colleagues. When we write essays and books together, there is of course a mutual absorption and influence, an implicit acceptance of theoretical framings, even if we are not conscious of the specific sources that gave rise to a particular common understanding.
If you find this of interest, please also check out:
- We have selected 50 key essays for a better understanding of the multi-facetted emergence of p2p-based understandings in the following two sections of our wiki: Essays 1; and Essays 2
- 1 'Classic' Authors and Books
- 1.1 Relational Grammars
- 1.2 Interpretations of History and Human Societal Evolution
- 1.3 Theories of the Commons
- 1.4 The Ecological turn: commons economics are bio-social-physical economics
- 1.5 The participatory turn in human consciousness: Jorge Ferrer and John Heron
- 1.6 Our roots in the 'integral left'
- 2 Contemporary Researchers
- 3 Suggestions from our network
'Classic' Authors and Books
The P2P Foundation focuses on peer to peer dynamics in networks, and on the capacity of these dynamics to create commons. The main framing uses the relational grammar of Alan Page Fiske, which has been historised by Kojin Karatani.
Alan Page Fiske: Structures of Social Life
The foundational manuscript on P2P theory, uses the relational model used by anthropologist Alan Page Fiske, to conclude that the peer to peer relational dynamic is a form on 'non-reciprocal' or generalized exchange (you exchange with the totality of a resource and its community, not expecting a direct return from any individual). In Fiske's model, it is called Communal Shareholding and it is part of a fourfold structure that also includes Equality Matching, Authority Ranking, and Market Pricing (referring to the gift economy, redistribution according to rank, and exchange of commomodities through the pricing mechanism).
The implication is that Peer Production does not function as a Gift Economy (which corresponds to Fiske's category called Equality Matching), as is often mistakenly claimed.
Fpr the basic article by Fiske, see at http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/fiske/relmodov.htm
See also our wiki entry at: Relational Model Typology - Fiske
Kojin Karatani: The Structure of World History
Whereas Fiske establishes a relational grammar that one can in find throughout historical periods and in every cultural sphere, Karatani historicizes their role as dominant form for particular civilizational formats, as they succeed each other through cultural and societal evolution. To be the dominant form of exchange does not mean being the only form of exchange, but it means that it is the main form, and that the other forms adapt to it.
Karatani_Kojin, is a Japanese political theorist and philosopher who is one of the co-founders of the defunct Japanese New Associationist Movement and the author of a book on the Evolution of the Structure of World History Through Modes of Production and Modes of Exchange. The book establishes a history of modes of relationship and allocation of resources (instead of the Marxist framing of 'modes of production' for example).
The evolution of cooperation: Multilevel Selection Theory
The commons, 'commoning', depends to a large degree on our capacity for cooperation and even altruism. Multi-Level Selection Theory is an adaptation of Darwinian evolutionary theory which allows for the integration of the evolutionary effects of group formation, which has been developed by David Sloan Wilson and others, for example through the Prosocial Framework  which attemts to create a convergence between evolutionary theory and the findings of Elinor Ostrom.
A good intro is the essay Evolutionary Theory of Resource Distribution by Blair Fix.
See also: Ultrasociality by Peter Turchin.
Interpretations of History and Human Societal Evolution
Wave Pulse theories are cyclical theories of human history, which sees societies evolving in a succession between more extractive/degradative phases, and more regenerative phases in which the commons operate as a key 'healing' mechanism. Peter Turchin's Secular Cycles is a good overview of how these cycles operate in agrarian societies, while Karl Polanyi focuses on the internal 'Kondratieff' type cycles within capitalism, in his masterpiece history of the emergence of industrial capitalism, at the end of the 17th cy., until 1945, i.e. The Great Transformation. Mark Whitaker's stellar book on ecological revolutions in China, Japan and Europe. P2P Theory is influenced by the findings of a two-year sabbatical investigation into phase transitions in human history, and draws on this body of historical interpretation. If you mix historical evolution as a trend towards increased complexity and scale, and the accumulation of technical-scientific knowledge, with the polarity switches indicated by wave-pulse theory, then you get to a vision of human evolution that is somewhat akin to a spiral-type development. Deep phase transitions are also important 'mutations' in human collective mentalities and forms of subjective consciousness. This is where the integrative work of Peter Pogany comes in, in his book, Rethinking the World, which integrates the work of the integral philosopher and cultural historian Jean Gebser.
For an introduction, see our article: The pulsation of the commons: The temporal context for the cosmo-local transition. By Michel Bauwens and Jose Ramos.
Karl Polanyi: The Great Transformation
A history of the emergence and evolution of capitalism, from the abolition of the basic income support system in the late 17th cy (Speenhamland system), up to 1945. Polany sees a double movement within capitalism, periods in which market power dominates and frees the economy from society (the 'lib' part of the pendulum), and periods when society reasserts its primacy (the 'lab' part of the pendulum). Technically, the 'Nation', i.e. the community form under capitalism, through its mobilization against the excesses of unregulated markets, forces the State, to re-regulate the Market. Alex Foti, in his book, General Theory of the Precariat, adds the interesting insights, that periods of relative 'labour' domination, end in a supply crisis (lack of profitability of capital), while 'lib' periods, end with demand crisis (insufficient buying power of the working classes). Carlota Perez, in Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital, looks at the role of technology and finance within these cycles.
Peter Pogany integrates the story of the thermodynamic basis of the human economy (matter and energy flows, subject to degradation through use), the particular forms of societal organization through global governance institutions, and the dominant mode of consciousness. He sees a succession of relatively stable systems (Global System 0, 1, and 2), which morph through intervening and inevitable chaotic transitions.
In short, Global System 0, the mercantile system, interupted by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars; Global System 1, the 'Smithsian' capitalist system, based on the full dominion of capital over labor, and without multilateral institutions; interrupted by World War I and II; resulting in Global System 2, based on a contract between capital and labor in the western countries, and 'weak multilateralism'; the new chaotic transition started with a reversal of the 'Four Cheaps' (labor, food, energy, resources) in 2003, causing the 2008 financial crisis, reinforced by the effects of Covid, should possibly lead to GS3, a new global system with strong multilateralism, that reflects the needs for planetary revival and the internalisation of thermodynamic constraints, say 'a compact between humanith and the other beings and resources in the web of life'. See Jason Moore, Capitalism in the Web of Life, for the evolution of stages of historical natures, different ways in which capitalist humanity intersects with nature (human nature with extra-human nature).
Theories of the Commons
Elinor Ostrom: Governing the Commons
The P2P Foundation first phase of research was directed towards the peer production of 'immaterial' goods, such as free software, open design and shared knowledge, i.e. also sometimes called open source production, which operates around digital knowledge-based commons; the second phase was dedicated to urban commons, i.e. the mutualization of physical resources; and the third phase is dedicated to actual physical production, what we call Cosmo-Localization or "Cosmo-Local Production". In this context, the pioneering work of Elinor Ostrom, which focused on the multi-millenial history of natural resource commons (mainly but not exclusively), is of course a very important reference.
We started our 'ecological turn' in 2017, with the publication of our own report, The Thermodynamic Efficiencies of Peer Production. Looking at the insights of biophysical economics, and the discussions in the degrowth movements, we came to the conclusion that mutualization is one of the key strategic priorities to reduce the human footprint, while maintaining complex societal systems. So we focus on the mutualization of urban and rural provisioning systems, striving for Perma-Circularity and a Factor 20 Reduction in energy usage.
Mark Whitaker: Ecological Revolution: The Political Origins of Environmental Degradation and the Environmental Origins of Axial Religions
Mark Whitaker's book is a historical study which looks at the experiences of China, Japan and Europe over a 3,000 year period, discovering a pattern of ecological revolutions (using mutualization techniques) that attempt to recreate civilizational healing, after period of exhaustion of natural resources.
Kate Raworth's synthesis on Doughnut Economics
Kate Raworth has produced an excellent synthesis of the earlier work of the Stockholm Resilience Institute and other ecological scholars pointing out the dangers of overstepping the planetary boundaries of crucial natural cycles. The Doughnut model combines a vision of the limited planetary resources, with a vision of fulfilling the needs of that part of humanity that doesn't have access to the basic provisioning systems. Our report P2P Accounting for Planetary Survival, which she foreworded, looks at which global cyber-physical infrastructure, could help the worldwide coordination of production for human needs, without overstepping those boundaries, by looking at innovative accounting prototypes which include these thermodynamic limitations in its contributory and flow-based supply chains, using shared distributed ledgers.
This book is the state of the art of world-ecological analysis. Capitalism exists because its sphere of commodity prices also uses the appropriation of the 'Four Cheaps' (labor, food, energy, resources) in frontiers that are not subject yet to its own rules. But as these frontiers exhaust themselves because of over-exploitation, new frontiers are needed to restart the cycle. Moore insists on a view that doesn't separate humans from nature, but sees historical natures as coproduced by human and extra-human nature.
The participatory turn in human consciousness: Jorge Ferrer and John Heron
The P2P Foundation's philosophical basis is a integral/integrative, participatory and relational ontology, based on a critical realist approach.
Jean Gebser: The Ever-Present Origin
"The P2P Foundation's founding was originally a left-integral impulse, i.e. an attempt to renew the emancipatory tradition for the networked age, inspired to a certain degree by integral theories and thinking. One of our sources was Jean Gebser and his history of forms of human consciousness, and their successive mutations that also corresponds to types of civilizations. Peter Pogany has worked on a synthesis between thermodynamic realities, socio-technical infrastructures of human civilizations, and the dominant forms of consciousness that accompany them.". Ken Wilber's AQAL approach was also influential, and Michel Bauwens had studied Wilber for about 8 years. At the time of the founding of the P2P Foundation however, Bauwens had already developed a critique of Ken Wilber's work, while still broadly believing in the importance of a non-reductionist and integrative approach. A third influence is the Critical Realism of Roy Bhaskar.
John Heron: Sacred Science
Jorge Ferrer: Participatory Turn in Transpersonal Psychology
Our roots in the 'integral left'
- Ken Wilber's Integral Theory
- Jean Gebser's mutations of consciousness
- Other integralists: Teilhard de Chardin, Bernard Stiegler, Sorokin, Roy Bhaskar
- progressive opposition to identitarian regressions (radical: Jacobin, the Toure brothers, Mark Fisher; progressive liberal: )
- Adam Arvidsson
- Enzio Manzini
- Christian Iaione
- Kevin Carson
- Daniel Schmachtenberger and Jordan Hall
Suggestions from our network
David Harold Chester
"I notice that the books on your lists do not include those of Henry George and at least his classic "Progress and Poverty" of 1879 should definitely be there. It is still in print. The basic subject of macroeconomics is badly understood, even today although George has some good ideas about it, there is a need for more organized information and I have managed to achieve this after much research in my 310 page book "Consequential Macroeconomics", which is slightly favorable to the Georgist philosophy of sharing of opportunities provided by nature and due to the concentrations of people in cities (as if we are also a part of nature)." (email, 15/10/2020)