Introduction to the P2P Foundation Wiki Material about the Commons
= What we share. Creations of both nature and society that belong to all of us equally, and should be maintained for future generations. The Commons has the potential to replace the commodity as the determining form of re-/producing societal living conditions. Such a replacement can only occur, if communities constitute themselves for every aspect of life, in order to take „their“ commons back and to reintegrate them into a new need-focused logic of re-/production. 
This new section exclusively devoted to the emergence of Commons in various fields.
- Most commons fall into three general categories – gifts of nature, material creations, and intangible creations. . Here are the Four Rules against the False Abundance of the Eternal Growth Economy.
- Please partipate in our next International Commons Conference, “Constructing a Commons-Based Policy Platform,” which will be held in Berlin, Germany, on November 1 and 2, 2010. We also support the World Commons Day, October 15, 2010.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Visualization
- 3 Typology
- 4 Citations
- 5 Key Resources
- 6 Key Events
- 7 Key Organizations
- 8 Key Videos
- 9 Commons Encyclopedia
- James Quilligan:
"Our global economic system is now in grave crisis, threatening the entire planet, its institutions and species.
A new kind of common wealth is needed to protect the assets of Earth, resolve our private and public debts, and create a global society of justice, sharing and sustainability for everyone.
Our commons are the collective heritage of humanity — the shared resources of nature and society that we inherit, create and use. People across the world are now rediscovering these common goods and choosing to protect them for future generations.
Whether our commons are traditional (rivers, forests, indigenous cultures) or emerging (solar energy, intellectual property, internet), communities are managing them through unique forms of self-governance, collaboration and collective action. And in working together to preserve these resources, we are generating new standards of responsibility, mutual aid and sustenance for all beings.
Global Commons Trust promotes the creation of trusteeships, where the rights to our commons may be realized for the benefit of all." (http://globalcommonstrust.org/)
- Is there a difference between the Common and the Public?
- Introduction to the Commons, the Tragedy of the Commons and the Tragedy of the Tragedy of the Commons
- The Commons - Typology of Stefan Meretz
- Establishing Global Commons Trust , Global Common Goods and a Commons Reserve Currency
- The Co-Governance and Co-Production of the Commons through Commons Trusts on the basis of Social Charters
- Replacing the scarcity-engineering of capitalist markets by the abundance engineering of the commons, see the Abundance - Typology and the Wealth Typology
- Introduction to Commons-centered economics. By Sam Rose, Paul Hartzog et al.
- Ryan Lanham proposes a set of P2P Commons Boundary Conditions
- In this article on Use Communities, Alex Steffen argues that sharing infrastructures are vital for sustainability
- Darryl Birkenfield: What is the Meaning of Being a Commoner?
Twelve Key Assets of Ogallala Commons
1. See also: Commons - Typology
2. Sam Rose and Paul Hartzog offer the following typology for Commons based on different distributed infrastructures:
1. Energy Commons 2. Food Commons 3. Thing Commons 4. Cultural Commons 5. Access Commons
"James Greyson  proposes Seven Policy Switches and associated strategic commons to achieve a rapid reversal or multiple global problems. "Together the switches define a practical strategy for global security, for a serious attempt at revival of co-operation, ecosystems and prosperity." 
- Progress commons; replacing a less-bad vision of progress with 'positive development'. Global security (merged security goals such as climate security, international security, human security, economic security, etc) is proposed as a broad framework for the commons. Progress is increasing global security (currently in reverse).
- Learning commons; enabling open-mindedness by replacing prescriptive education of predetermined curricula with 'curiosity-led'. Collective capacity to learn (adding to and reshaping knowledge) is proposed as an element of the commons.
- Resource commons; a simple micro-economic tool to replace linear (waste-based) economics with 'circular economics'. The world's material resource stock, which can be used and maintained as resources for the future, is proposed as an element of the commons.
- Co-operation commons; a simple macro-economic tool to replace conflict escalation with peace and co-operation escalation. Collective capacity for co-operation, which is diminished by the stock of weapons , is proposed as an element of the commons.
- Ecosystem commons; replacing exploitive ownership with a world-wide merging of ownership and guardianship. A culture of belonging to the Earth (rather than the other way around) is proposed as an element of the commons.
- Sharing commons; wealth-sharing by the mega-rich replacing a culture of scarcity with abundance. Collective capacity to share (rather than to concentrate wealth) is proposed as an element of the commons.
- Money supply commons, replacing privatised money-creation with public national and local money supply. Collective decisions about the creation and circulation of money is proposed as an element of the commons. " (see Seven Policy Switches)
- Atmosphere Commons ; Atmospheric Commons
- Food Commons ; Food as Common and Community
- Hunting Commons
- Infrastructure Commons; see also: Developing the Meta Services for the Eco-Social Economy
- Land as Commons
- Marine Commons
- Microbial Commons
- Petroleum Commons
- Solar Commons
- Water Commons
- Aesthetic Commons 
- Book Commons
- Cultural Commons 
- Educational Commons
- Genome Commons
- Global Innovation Commons
- Global Integral-Spiritual Commons
- History Commons
- Information Commons ; Information as a Common-Pool Resource
- Knowledge Commons ; Knowledge as a Commons
- Learning Commons
- Media Commons
- Music Commons
- Open Education Commons
- Open Scientific Software Commons ; Open Source Science Commons
- Patent Commons ; Eco-Patent Commons
- Psychological Commons
- Financial Commons
- Global Legal Commons
- Household as Commons
- Internet Commons
- NonProfit Commons
- Taxes as Commons
- Thing Commons
- Urban Commons
- Wireless Commons
Sam Rose on Transition Economics
"Where people work together to both share those resources that are shareable now (software, designs, knowledge, waste that can be used as food, surplus capacities and resources) and cooperate to produce items that are still based in scarcity, then re-invest the profits into creating more and more abundance-economy-based systems."
- See Sam Rose on the need for Cooperative Wealth Building facilitators
Neoliberalism as the Anti-Commons
"As neoliberalism converts every political or social problem into market terms, it converts them to individual problems with market solutions. Examples in the United States are legion: bottled water as a response to contamination of the water table; private schools, charter schools, and voucher systems as a response to the collapse of quality public education; anti-theft devices, private security guards, and gated communities (and nations) as a response to the production of a throwaway class and intensifying economic inequality; boutique medicine as a response to crumbling health care provision; “V-chips” as a response to the explosion of violent and pornographic material on every type of household screen; ergonomic tools and technologies as a response to the work conditions of information capitalism; and, of course, finely differentiated and titrated pharmaceutical antidepressants as a response to lives of meaninglessness or despair amidst wealth and freedom. This conversion of socially, economically, and politically produced problems into consumer items depoliticizes what has been historically produced, and it especially depoliticizes capitalism itself. Moreover, as neoliberal political rationality devolves both political problems and solutions from public to private, it further dissipates political or public life: the project of navigating the social becomes entirely one of discerning, affording, and procuring a personal solution to every socially produced problem. This is depoliticization on an unprecedented level: the economy is tailored to it, citizenship is organized by it, the media are dominated by it, and the political rationality of neoliberalism frames and endorses it.”
- Wendy Brown 
- Christian Siefkes (2007), From Exchange to Contributions: Generalizing Peer Production into the Physical World. : proposal for a commons-based economic system
- Book: Common as Air. Lewis Hyde. 2010
On specialized commons:
- The Common Thread. By John Sulston: a nuanced defense of treating knowledge of the genome as a commons.
- Genes, Bytes and Emissions: To Whom Does the World Belong? Ed. by Silke Helfrich. Heinrich Boll Foundation, 2009
- On the Water Commons: Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop Corporate Theft of the World’s Water. By Maude Barlow.the Water Commons
- Four conditions for successful commons. by Mark van Vugt: "I have identified four key conditions for the successful management of shared environmental resources: information, identity, institutions and incentives. I believe we can and should use this 4i framework as the basis for a plan of action to combat local and global environmental catastrophe."
- Christian Siefkes (2009), The Commons of the Future. Building Blocks for a Commons-based Society.
- The Circulation of the Common = Analytical concept proposed by Nick Dyer-Witheford related to the reproduction of the commons 
- Information as a Common-Pool Resource. Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom. 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 111, Winter-Spring 2003. : a paper contextualizing knowledge commons and the study of other commons
- Global Commons and Common Sense. Jorge Buzaglo. real-world economics review, issue no. 51  : policy proposals for a global governance of planetary commons
- The Common in Commonism. Michael Hardt looks at what Marx had to say about the common. 
- A typology for managing common resources: Wolfgang Hoeschele on Contributory Resource Use
- The Five Commons - ( http://forwardfound.org/blog/?q=five-commons ) a “minimally necessary” set of practices to achieve a sustainable society.
- Philippe Aigrain: The Reinvention of the Commons in the Information Age (french)
- James Quilligan
- People Sharing Resources. Toward a New Multilateralism of the Global Commons. James Bernard Quilligan Kosmos Journal, Fall | Winter 2009: this article frames what a global commons-based policy and governance structure should be.
- James Quilligan: Toward a Commons-based Framework for Global Negotiations
- Aesthetic Commons and the Enclosures of Instituting Autonomies. By Jordi Claramonte. 
- Denis Postle: Psychological Commons, Peer to Peer Networks and Post-Professional Psychopractice
Key Policy Proposals
- Securing the Commons. By Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Esther Mwangi, and Stephan Dohrn. CAPRi Policy Brief 4. 
- International Commons Conference, “Constructing a Commons-Based Policy Platform,” Berlin, Germany, on November 1 and 2, 2010. Working document: Berlin Commons Conference
- World Commons Day, October 15, 2010.
- Anthony McCann on the Enclosure of the Information Commons
- Brewster Kahle on Universal Access to All Knowledge
- Business Models for the Commons
- Emer O'Siochru on Reclaiming the Commons