Difference between revisions of "Fuller, Buckminster"

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[[Image:Bfullerstamp.jpg|right|frame|In the [[United States|U.S.]] [[postage stamp]] commemorating '''R. Buckminster Fuller''' and his contributions to [[architecture]] and [[science]], some of his inventions are visible.  Most notably, his head is shaped after one of his [[geodesic dome]]s.  Other elements, such as futuristic [[automobile|cars]], other craft and [[radar]] dishes are also present.]]
[[Category: Individuals]]
'''Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller''' ([[July 12]], [[1895]] [[July 1]], [[1983]]) was an [[United States|American]] [[visionary]], [[designer]], [[architect]], and [[inventor]].
'''Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller''' (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an visionary, designer, architect, and inventor. His most notable contributions are the Geodesic Dome and the World Game, both employing the concept of [[synergetics]] which he explored and developed through much of his life. His life work led towards creating a world wide resource administrative system which could provide billionaire wealth for all global citizens, or "complete success for all without disadvantaging any".
Throughout his life, Fuller was concerned with the question of whether humanity has a chance to survive lastingly and successfully on planet Earth, and if so, how.  Considering himself an average individual without special monetary means or academic degree, he chose to devote his life to this question, trying to find out what an individual like him could do to improve humanity's condition that large organizations, governments, or private enterprises inherently could not do.
Pursuing this lifelong experiment, Fuller wrote twenty-eight books, coining and popularizing terms such as [[Spaceship Earth|"spaceship earth"]], [[ephemeralization]], and [[synergetics]].  He also created a large number of inventions, mostly in the fields of design and architecture, the best-known of which is the [[geodesic dome]].
Late in his life, after working on his concepts for several decades, Fuller had achieved considerable public visibility.  He traveled the world giving lectures, and received numerous honorary doctorates.  Most of his inventions, however, never made it into production, and he was strongly criticized in most of the fields that he tried to influence (such as architecture), or simply dismissed as a hopeless [[Utopianism|utopian]].  Fuller's proponents, on the other hand, claim that his work has not yet received the attention that it deserves.
Fuller was born on [[July 12]] [[1895]] in [[Milton, Massachusetts|Milton]], [[Massachusetts]], the son of Richard Buckminster Fuller and Caroline Wolcott Andrews. The Fuller family in particular produced noted New England non-conformists.  Buckminster Fuller's father died when the boy was 12.  Spending his youth on a farm on an island off the coast of Maine, he was a boy with a natural propensity for design and for making things.  He often made things from materials he brought home from the woods, and he even sometimes made his own tools.  Notably, he experimented with designing a new apparatus for the human-powered propulsion of small boats.  Years later he decided that this sort of experience had provided him not only an interest in design, but a habit of being fully familiar and knowledgeable about the materials that his ambitious later projects would require for actualization.  Indeed, Fuller earned a machinist's certification, and he also knew how to fabricate using the press brake, stretch press, and other tools and equipment relied upon in the sheet-metal trade.
Fuller was sent to [[Milton Academy]], in Massachusetts.  Afterwards, he began studying at [[Harvard University|Harvard]] but was expelled from the university twice: first, for entertaining an entire dance troupe; and second, for his "irresponsibility and lack of interest."  By his own appraisal, he was a non-conforming misfit in the fraternity environment.  Later in life, Fuller received a Sc.D. from [[Bates College]] in 1969.
Between his sessions at [[Harvard]], he worked for a time in Canada as a mechanic in a textile mill, and later as a laborer working 12 hours a day in the meat-packing industry.  He married in 1917, and he also served in the [[United States Navy|U.S. Navy]] in [[World War I]]. In the Navy he was employed as an aboard-ship radio operator, as an editor of a publication, and as a crash-boat commander.  After discharge, he again worked for a period in the meat-packing business, where he acquired management experience.  In the early 1920s he and his father-in-law developed the Stockade Building System for producing light-weight, weatherproof, and fireproof housing — though ultimately the company failed.
In 1927 at the age of 32, [[bankruptcy|bankrupt]] and jobless, living in inferior housing in [[Chicago, Illinois]], he saw his beloved young daughter Alexandra die of pneumonia in winter.  He felt responsible, and this drove him to drink and to the verge of [[suicide]]. At the last moment he decided instead to embark on "an experiment, to find what a single individual can contribute to changing the world and benefiting all humanity."
Fuller accepted a position at a small college in [[North Carolina]], [[Black Mountain College]]. There, with the support of a group of professors and students, he began work on the project that would make him famous and revolutionize the field of engineering, the [[geodesic dome]]. Using lightweight plastics in the simple form of a tetrahedron (a triangular pyramid) he created a small dome. He had designed the first building that could sustain its own weight with no practical limits. The U.S. government recognized the importance of the discovery and employed him to make small domes for the army. Within a few years there were thousands of these domes around the world.
For the next half-century Buckminster Fuller contributed a wide range of ideas, designs and inventions to the world, particularly in the areas of practical, inexpensive shelter and transportation. He documented his life, philosophy and ideas scrupulously in a daily [[diary]] and in 28 publications. Fuller financed some of his experiments with inherited family money, sometimes augmented by funds invested by his professional collaborators, one example being the Dymaxion Car project.
His international recognition was established by the success of his huge [[geodesic dome]]s in the 1950s. Fuller taught at [[Southern Illinois University Carbondale]] from 1959–1970 (Assistant Professor 1959–68, full Professor in 1968) in the School of Art and Design.  Working as a designer, scientist, developer, and writer, for many years he also lectured all over the world on design. In 1965 Fuller inaugurated the [[World Design Science Decade]] (1965 to 1975) at the meeting of the [[International Union of Architects]] in [[Paris]]. This was (in his own words) devoted to ''applying the principles of science to solving the problems of humanity.''
Fuller believed human societies would soon be relying mainly on renewable sources of energy, such as solar- and wind-derived electricity.  He hoped for an age of "omni-successful education and sustenance of all humanity."  He regarded information as "negative entropic".
Fuller was ultimately to be awarded 25 US patents and many honorary doctorates. On [[January 16]], [[1970]] Fuller received the Gold Medal award from the [[American Institute of Architects]] and also received numerous other awards. 
He died at the age of 88, a [[guru]] of the design, architecture, and 'alternative' communities. His wife was comatose and dying of cancer and while visiting her in the hospital <!-- What was the name of this hospital? --> he exclaimed at one point: "She is squeezing my hand!". He then stood up, suffered a massive heart attack and died an hour later. His wife died 36 hours later.  He is buried in [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]] near Boston, Massachusetts.
==Philosophy and worldview==
Buckminster Fuller strove to inspire humanity to take a comprehensive view of the finite world we live in and the infinite possibilities for an ever-increasing standard of living within it.  Deploring [[Toyota Production System|waste]], he advocated a principle that he termed "[[ephemeralization]]" — which in essence (according to [[Stewart Brand]]) Fuller coined to mean "doing more with less."  Wealth can be increased by recycling resources into newer, higher value products whose more technically sophisticated design requires less material.  In practice, it has often meant miniaturization, for example, as when table-model calculating machines were succeeded over time by smaller ones, until the calculator of today fits in one's hand.  Fuller also introduced [[synergetics]], which explores holistic engineering structures in nature (long before the term [[synergy]] became popular).
Fuller was one of the first to propagate a [[systems theory|systemic]] [[worldview]] (see '[[Operating manual for Spaceship Earth]]', '[[Synergetics]]') and explored principles of [[energy efficiency|energy]] and [[material efficiency]] in the fields of [[architecture]], [[engineering]] and [[design]].  He cited Francois de Chardendes' view that [[petroleum]] from the standpoint of its replacement cost out of our current energy "budget" (essentially the incoming [[solar power|solar flux]]), he declared that it had cost nature "over a million dollars" per U.S. gallon ($300,000/L) to produce.  From this point of view its use as a transportation fuel by people commuting to work represents a huge net loss compared to their earnings (See: ''Critical Path'' pp. xxxiv-xxxv''').
[[Image:Bfullermask.jpg|right|frame|Actor Arryck Adams portrays Buckminster Fuller in Elite Theatre Company's 2006 production of [[Godspell]]. Photo by [[Sean Philip Harrington]].]]
He dedicated himself to advancing the success and fulfillment of humanity and lived by a set of [[Buckminster Fullers self disciplines|self-disciplines]]; he was deeply concerned about [[sustainability]] and about human survival under the existing socio-economic system, yet was profoundly optimistic about humanity's prospects.  Defining wealth in terms of knowledge, as the "technological ability to protect, nurture, support, and accommodate all growth needs of life", his analysis of the condition of "Spaceship Earth" led him to conclude that at a certain point in the 1970s humanity had crossed an unprecedented watershed. 
What might otherwise sound like an article of faith in some spiritual or philosophical system had for Fuller become an objective fact — that the accumulation of relevant knowledge, combined with the quantities of key recyclable resources that had already been extracted from the earth, had reached a critical level, such that competition for necessities was no longer necessary.  Cooperation had became the optimum survival strategy.  "Selfishness", he declared, "is unnecessary and...unrationalizable...War is obsolete..."
By considering historical comparisons like the fact that even relatively poor people today are able to travel at speeds and with a degree of comfort which were unobtainable at any price in earlier times, and that illnesses that were fatal even to kings in the past can now be cured with affordable drugs, he concluded that everyone alive today can potentially live like a "billionaire."  Hence he described the human race as "four billion billionaires."
In the 2001 National Tour for the hit musical [[Godspell]] by [[Stephen Schwartz (composer)|Stephen Schwartz]], Fuller is one of the eight philosophers in the show's Prologue and Tower of Babel songs, with the words, "Man is a complex of patterns and processes."
Besides important comprehensiveness of thought and his philosophical concepts, Fuller's most lasting insights may be geometric.  He claimed that the natural [[analytic geometry]] of the universe was based on arrays of [[tetrahedron|tetrahedra]].  He developed this in several ways, from the close-packing of spheres and the number of compressive or tensile members required to stabilize an object in space.  Some deep confirming results were that the strongest possible homogeneous [[truss]] is cyclically tetrahedral.
==Major design projects==
Fuller was most famous for his [[geodesic dome]]s, which can be seen as part of military [[radar]] stations, civic buildings, and exhibition attractions.  Their construction is based on extending some basic principles to build simple [[tensegrity]] structures ([[tetrahedron]], [[octahedron]], and the closest packing of [[sphere]]s).  Built in this way they are extremely lightweight and stable. The patent for geodesic domes was awarded in 1954, part of Fuller's decades-long efforts to explore nature's constructing principles to find design solutions.
Previously, Fuller had designed and built prototypes of what he hoped would be a safer, [[Aerodynamics|aerodynamic]] [[Dymaxion car]] ("[[Dymaxion]]" is contracted from DYnamic MAXimum tensION).  To this end he experimented with a radical new approach.  He worked with professional colleagues over a period of three years, beginning in 1932.  Based on a design idea Fuller had derived from designs of [[aircraft]], the three prototype cars were all quite different from anything on the market.  For one thing, each of these vehicles had three, not four, wheels — with two (the drive wheels) in front, and the third, rear wheel being the one that was steered.  The engine was located in the rear.  Both the chassis and the body were original designs.  The aerodynamic, somewhat [[tears|tear]]-shaped body (which in one of the prototypes was about 18 feet long), was large enough to seat 11 people. It somehow resembled a melding of a light aircraft (without wings) and a [[Volkswagen]] van of 1950s vintage.  The car was essentially a mini-bus in each of its three trial incarnations, and its concept long predated the [[Volkswagen Type 2]] mini-bus conceived in 1947 by [[Ben Pon]].
Despite its length, and due to its three-wheel design, the Dymaxion Car turned on a small radius and parked in a tight space quite nicely.  The prototypes were efficient in fuel consumption for their day. Fuller poured a great deal of his own money (inherited from his mother) into the project, in addition to the funds put in by one of his professional collaborators.  An industrial investor was also keenly interested in the unprecedented concept.  Fuller anticipated the car could travel on an open highway safely at up to about 100 miles per hour (160 km/h); however, due to some concept oversights, the prototypes proved to be unruly over the speed of 50 mph (80 km/h), and difficult to steer properly.  Research came to an end after one of the prototypes was involved in a collision resulting in a fatality.
In 1943, industrialist [[Henry J. Kaiser]] asked Fuller to develop a prototype for a smaller car, and Fuller designed a five-seater; the car never went into the development or production stages.
Another of Fuller's ideas was the alternative-projection [[Dymaxion map]].  This was designed to show the Earth's continents with minimum distortion when projected or printed on a flat surface.
Fuller's energy-efficient and low-cost [[Dymaxion house]]s garnered much interest, but have never gone into production.  Here the term "Dymaxion" is used in effect to signify a "radically strong and light [[tensegrity]] structure". One of Fuller's Dymaxion Houses is on display as a permanent exhibit at [[The Henry Ford]] in [[Dearborn, Michigan]].  Designed and developed in the mid 1940s, this prototype is a round structure (''not'' a dome) shaped something like the flattened "bell" of certain [[jellyfish]].  It has several other innovative features, including revolving dresser drawers, and a fine-mist shower that reduces water consumption.  According to Fuller biographer Steve Crooks, the house was designed to be delivered in two [[cylinder (geometry)|cylindrical]] packages, with interior color panels available at local dealers' premises.  A circular structure at the top of the house was designed to rotate around a central mast to take advantage of natural winds for cooling and air circulation.
[[Image:Mtl-biosphere.jpg|right|thumb|'''The American Pavilion of [[Expo 67]]''', by R. Buckminster Fuller, now the Biosphère, on [[Île Sainte-Hélène]], [[Montreal]]. Fuller developed the geodesic dome in the 1940s in line with his "synergetic" thinking.]]
Conceived nearly two decades before, and developed in [[Wichita, Kansas]], the house was designed to be lightweight and adapted to windy climes.  It was to be inexpensive to produce and purchase, and easily assembled.  It was to be produced using factories, trained workers, and technologies that had produced [[World War II]] aircraft.  "Ultramodern"-looking, it was structured of metal and sheathed in polished aluminum, and the basic model enclosed 1000 square feet (90 m²) of floor area.  Due to high-level publicity, there were very many orders in the early Post-War years; however, the company that Fuller and others had formed to produce the houses failed due to internal management problems.
Buckminster Fuller made a radical commitment to understanding, discovery, and research.  He wanted to be a trailblazer, which is a risky role in any field.  His life and his work therefore constituted a kind of noble gamble.
==Practical achievements==
Certainly, a number of Fuller's projects did not meet success in terms of commitment from industry or acceptance by a broad public.  However, many geodesic domes have been built and are in use.  According to the [http://www.bfi.org/ Buckminster Fuller Institute] Web site, the largest geodesic-dome structures (listed in descending order from largest diameter) are:
*Fantasy Entertainment Complex: Kyosho Isle, Japan, 710 feet / 216 m
*Multi-Purpose Arena: Nagoya, Japan, 614 feet / 187 m
*[[Tacoma Dome]]: [[Tacoma]], WA, USA, 530 feet / 162 m
*[[Superior Dome]]: Northern Michigan Univ. Marquette, MI, USA, 525 feet / 160 m
*Walkup Skydome: Northern Arizona Univ. Flagstaff, AZ, USA, 502 feet / 153 m
*Round Valley High School Stadium: [[Springerville]]-[[Eagar, AZ]], USA, 440 feet / 134 m
*Former Spruce Goose Hangar: Long Beach, CA, USA, 415 feet / 126 m
*Formosa Plastics Storage Facility: Mai Liao, Taiwan, 402 feet / 123 m
*Union Tank Car Maintenance Facility: Baton Rouge, LA USA, 384 feet / 117 m
*Lehigh Portland Cement Storage Facility: Union Bridge, MD USA, 374 feet / 114 m
Fuller's development of the dome and his roles as a philosopher and as a gadfly within the design and architectural communities left an important legacy.  He introduced a number of concepts, and if every one wasn't entirely new, we can still say that he honed each one well.
Thousands of geodesic domes have been built, but they are not an everyday sight in most places.  Contrary to initial hopes, in practice most of the smaller owner-built geodesic structures proved to have drawbacks (discussed in the Wikipedia section on [[geodesic dome]]s); plus, as a home, many people have been put off by the domes' unconventional appearance.
So, while an envisioned widespread and common adoption of geodesic domes is yet to materialize, Fuller's ideas, teachings, and attitude to life and creativity, in combination, have prodded designers and engineers.  What Fuller accomplished, in this sense, was to make professionals and students think "outside the box"; to question convention.  Fuller was followed (historically) by other designers and architects (for example, [[Norman Foster]] — especially his "Armadillo" project — and [[Steve Baer]]) willing to explore the possibilities of new geometries in the design of buildings, not based on the conventional rectangles.  The English writer, playwright, and philosopher [[John Dryden]] wrote something quite relevant to the pioneering forays of Fuller still to be brought to full result: "We must beat the iron while it is hot, but we may polish it at leisure."
*Fuller was friends with Boston artist [[Pietro Pezzati]].
*He experimented with [[polyphasic sleep]].
*He was a [[Unitarian-Universalism|Unitarian-Universalist]].
*A new [[allotropy|allotrope]] of [[carbon]] ([[fullerene]]) and a particular molecule of that allotrope ([[buckminsterfullerene]] or buckyballs) have been named after him. The Buckminsterfullerene molecule, which consists of 60 carbon atoms, very closely resembles a spherical version of Fuller's geodesic dome.
*On [[July 12]], [[2004]] the [[United States Post Office]] released a new commemorative stamp honoring Buckminster Fuller on the 50th anniversary of his patent for the geodesic dome and on the occasion of his 109th birthday.
*Fuller documented his life every 15 minutes from 1915 to 1983, leaving behind 270 feet / 80 m worth of journals.  He called this the [[Dymaxion Chronofile]]. This is said to be the most documented human life in history.
*Around 1979-1980, Bucky shared a lecture tour across America with philosopher [[Werner Erhard]].
:''"If somebody kept a very accurate record of a human being, going through the era from the Gay 90s, from a very different kind of world through the turn of the century — as far into the twentieth century as you might live. I decided to make myself a good case history of such a human being and it meant that I could not be judge of what was valid to put in or not. I must put everything in, so I started a very rigorous record."'' [http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2003/january22/bucky-122.html][http://www-sul.stanford.edu//depts/spc/fuller/about.html]
*Buckminster and [[John Denver]] were very close friends and the song "What One Man Can Do" on John's 1982 album "Seasons of the Heart" was written on the occasion of R. Buckminster's 85th birthday. John dedicated this song to him.
'''''World-around''''' is a term coined by Fuller to replace ''worldwide''. The general belief in a [[flat Earth]] died out in the [[Middle Ages]], so using ''wide'' is an [[anachronism]] when referring to the surface of the Earth — a [[spheroid]]al surface has [[area]] and encloses a [[volume]], but has no width.  Fuller held that unthinking use of [[superseded scientific theory|obsolete scientific ideas]] detracts from and misleads intuition.  The terms '''sunsight''' and '''sunclipse''' are other neologisms, according to [[Allegra Fuller Snyder]] collectively coined by the Fuller family, replacing ''sunrise'' and ''sunset'' in  order to overturn the geocentric bias of most pre-[[Copernicus|Copernican]] [[celestial mechanics]].
Fuller also coined the phrase [[Spaceship Earth]], and coined the term (but did not invent) ''[[tensegrity]].''
It has also been claimed that Fuller coined the phrase [[debunk]] in 1927, however many credit [[William Woodward]] for the term in 1923.
==Concepts and buildings==
''[http://bfi.org/node/75 List of patents]''
His concepts and buildings include:
*[[Dymaxion house]] (1928)  See [[autonomous building]]
*Aerodynamic [[Dymaxion car]] (1933)
*Prefabricated compact bathroom cell (1937)
*[[Dymaxion Map]] of the world (1946) 
*Buildings (1943)
*[[Tensegrity]] structures (1949)
*[[Geodesic dome]] for Ford Motor Company (1953)
*Patent on [[geodesic dome]]s (1954)
*The [[World Game]] (1961) and the World Game Institute (1972)
*Patent on [[octet truss]] (1961)
His publications include:
*''4-D Timelock'' (1928)
*''Nine Chains to the Moon'' (1938, ISBN 0224008005)
*''The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller'' (1960, ISBN 0385018045) With Robert W. Marks. Anchor Press, Doubleday & Company, Inc.
*''Untitled Epic Poem on the History of Industrialization'' (1962, ISBN 0671204785)
*''Education Automation: Freeing the Scholar to Return to his Studies'' (1962, ISBN 0809301377) - online at http://reactor-core.org/education-automation.html
*''Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth'' (1963/1969/1971, ISBN 0525474331) - online at http://bfi.org/node/422
*''Your Private Sky'' (ISBN 3907044886)
*''Ideas and Integrities'' (1969, ISBN 0020926308)
*''Utopia or Oblivion: The Prospects for Humanity'' (1969, ISBN 0713901349)
*''Approaching the Benign Environment'' (1970, ISBN 0817366415)
*''I Seem to Be a Verb'' (1970)
*''No More Secondhand God and Other Writings'' (1963/1971)
*''Buckminster Fuller to Children of Earth'' (1972, ISBN 0385029799)
*''Intuition'' (1972, ISBN 0385012446)
*''Earth, Inc.'' (1973, ISBN 0385018258)
*''Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking'' (1975/1979, ISBN 002541870X [vol. 1], ISBN 0025418807 [vol. 2]) - online at http://www.rwgrayprojects.com/synergetics/synergetics.html
*''And It Came to Pass — Not to Stay'' (1976, ISBN 0025418106)
*''Tetrascroll: Goldilocks and the Three Bears: A Cosmic Fairy Tale'' (1977/1982, ISBN 0312793626) - online at http://www.fullereducation.org/fec_folder/tetrascroll.pdf
*''R. Buckminster Fuller on Education'' (1979, ISBN 0870232762)
*''Critical Path'' (1981, ISBN 0312174918)
*''Grunch of Giants'' (1983, ISBN 0312351941) - online at http://reactor-core.org/grunch-of-giants.html
*''Inventions: the Patented Works of R. Buckminster Fuller'' (1983, ISBN 0312434774)
*''Humans in Universe'' (1983, Mouton; ISBN 0899250017); with Anwar Dil
*''Cosmography'' (1992, ISBN 0025418505)
==Secondary literature==
*Sidney Rosen ''Wizard of the Dome: R. Buckminster Fuller, Designer for the Future''. 1969 (ISBN 0316757071)
*Hugh Kenner ''Bucky: A guided tour of Buckminster Fuller''. 1973 (ISBN 0688001416)
*Donald Robertson ''Mind's Eye Of Buckminster Fuller''. 1974 (ISBN 0533010179) Vantage Press, Inc., New York.
*Alden Hatch ''Buckminster Fuller At Home In The Universe''. 1974 (ISBN 0440044081) Crown Publishers, New York.
*E. J. Applewhite ''Cosmic Fishing: An account of writing Synergetics with Buckminster Fuller''. 1977 (ISBN 0025027107)
*[http://www.angelfire.com/mt/marksomers/40.html ''A Fuller Explanation''] by Amy C. Edmondson offers a discussion of his work in geometry and systems.
*Buckminster Fuller also appears as a character in [[Paul Wühr]]'s book "Das falsche Buch".
*Lloyd Sieden ''Buckminster Fuller's Universe, His Life and Work''. 1989 (ISBN 0738203793), explores Fuller's personal life, his beliefs and drives.
*Martin Pawley  ''Buckminster Fuller''. 1991 (ISBN 080081116X), offers an architectural critic's assessment of Fuller's ideas and projects.
*His former student [[J. Baldwin]] wrote ''BuckyWorks: Buckminster Fuller's Ideas for Today'' 1997 (ISBN 0471198129).
*{{cite book | author=Erle, Schuyler; Gibson, Rich; & Walsh, Jo | title=Mapping Hacks | location=Sebastopol, CA | publisher=O'Reilly Media | year=2005 | id=ISBN 0596007035}}  Preface dedicates book to Bucky and relates the potential of networked [[virtual globe]]s to Bucky's Geoscope.
*McHale, John. ''R. Buckminster Fuller''. George Brazillier, Inc., New York. hardback. 1962.
*Lord, V. Athena. ''Pilot For Spaceship Earth''. Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc., New York. hardback. 1978 (ISBN 0027614204)
*Snyder, Robert. ''Buckminster Fuller: An Autobiographical Monologue/Scenario''. St. Martin's Press, New York. hardback. 1980 (ISBN 0312245475)
*''Synergetic Stew: Explorations In Dymaxion Dining''. The Buckminster Fuller Institute, Philadelphia. paperback. 1982 (ISBN 0911573003)
*Ward, James. Ed. ''The Artifacts Of R. Buckminster Fuller, A Comprehensive Collection of His Designs and Drawings in Four Volumes: Volume One. The Dymaxion Experiment, 1926-1943; Volume Two. Dymaxion Deployment, 1927-1946; Volume Three. The Geodesic Revolution, Part 1, 1947-1959; Volume Four. The Geodesic Revolution, Part 2, 1960-1983'': Edited with descriptions by James Ward. Garland Publishing, New York. 1984 (ISBN 0824050827 [vol. 1], ISBN 0824050835 [vol. 2], ISBN 0824050843 [vol. 3], ISBN 0824050851 [vol. 4])
*Brenneman, Richard. ''Fuller's Earth, A Day With Bucky And The Kids'' St. Martin's Press, New York, c. 1984. hardcover (ISBN 0312309813)
*E. J. Applewhite, ed. ''Synergetics Dictionary, The Mind Of Buckminster Fuller; in four volumes''. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York and London. 1986 (ISBN 0824087291)
*Potter, R. Robert. ''Buckminster Fuller (Pioneers in Change Series)''. Silver Burdett Publishers. 1990 (ISBN 0382099729)
*Pawley, Martin. ''Buckminster Fuller''. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York. 1991. hardcover (ISBN 080081116X)
*Krausse, Joachim and Lichtenstein, Claude. ed. ''Your Private Sky, R. Buckminster Fuller: The Art Of Design Science''. Lars Mueller Publishers. 1999 (ISBN 3907044886)
*Zung, T.K. Thomas. ''Buckminster Fuller: Anthology for a New Millennium''. St. Martin’s Press. 2001 (ISBN 0312266391)
*Disney's Dome, Ray Charles
==Former students==
*[[J. Baldwin]]
*[[Pierre Cabrol]]
*[[Joseph Clinton]]
*[[David Johnston (builder)|David Johnston]]
*[[Peter Pearce]]
*[[Shoji Sadao]]
*[[Kenneth Snelson]]
*[[Ruth Asawa]]
==External links==
*[http://www.bfi.org Buckminster Fuller Institute]: With several complete works online.
*[http://www.rwgrayprojects.com/rbfnotes/toc.html Notes to R. Buckminster Fuller's Work]
*[http://www.grunch.net/synergetics/ Synergetics on the Web]
*[http://www.zometool.com/ Build Genius: Zome System]
*[http://www.cjfearnley.com/buckyrefs.html Chris Fearnley's List of Buckminster Fuller Resources on the Internet]
*[http://www.cjfearnley.com/fuller-faq.html FAQ — R. Buckminster Fuller]
*[http://www.newciv.org/worldtrans/whole/bucky.html Fuller, R. Buckminster] — includes list of books written by and about Fuller
*[http://www.thirteen.org/bucky R. Buckminster Fuller on PBS]
*[http://shop.usps.com/cgi-bin/vsbv/postal_store_non_ssl/display_products/productDetail.jsp?OID=4849106 Information about Fuller's commemorative postage stamp]
*[http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,1284,64155,00.html?tw=wn_tophead_5 Wired News Article on the Buckminster stamp]
*[http://www.hfmgv.org/dymaxion/ The Dymaxion house at the Henry Ford museum]
*Buckminster Fuller discussed on [http://www.ibiblio.org/wunc_archives/sot/index.php?p=390 The State of Things]
*Buckminster Fuller and interstellar communication explored: [http://www.oracleinsights.com/blog/index.php/2006/01/08/an-unlikely-oracle-r-buckminster-fuller/ 'An Unlikely Oracle: R. Buckminster Fuller' ]
*[http://www.lazyreader.com/blog/index.php/archives/169 The Buckminster Alternative] Fuller's life as a lesson in living
===Audio and video===
*[http://www.philosophersforum.net/.3c52912f/cmd.233/enclosure.3c529131/BuckyFuller.mp3 Technology and peace]
*[http://www.bfi.org/audio/ Directory of Audio and Video real streams from the Buckminster Fuller Institute]
*[http://memeticdrift.net/bucky/index.html The "Everything I Know" 42-hour lecture session] — video, audio, and full transcripts.
|NAME=Fuller, Buckminster
|SHORT DESCRIPTION=American inventor and author
|DATE OF BIRTH=[[July 12]], [[1895]]
|PLACE OF BIRTH=[[Milton, Massachusetts|Milton]], [[Massachusetts]]
|DATE OF DEATH=[[July 1]], [[1983]]
[[Category:Buckminster Fuller| ]]
[[Category:American architects|Fuller, Buckminster]]
[[Category:American inventors|Fuller, Richard]]
[[Category:Autodidacts|Fuller, Richard]]
[[Category:Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients|Fuller, Richard]]
[[Category:Modernist architects|Fuller, Buckminster]]
[[Category:American humanists|Fuller, Buckminster]]
[[Category:1895 births|Fuller, Buckminster]]
[[Category:1983 deaths|Fuller, Buckminster]]
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Revision as of 18:55, 4 July 2006

Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an visionary, designer, architect, and inventor. His most notable contributions are the Geodesic Dome and the World Game, both employing the concept of synergetics which he explored and developed through much of his life. His life work led towards creating a world wide resource administrative system which could provide billionaire wealth for all global citizens, or "complete success for all without disadvantaging any".