Difference between revisions of "Demand Side of Abundance"
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For the supply side of Abundance Economics, see: [[Abundance - Typology]]
For the supply side of Abundance Economics, see: [[Abundance - Typology]]
Revision as of 16:20, 15 February 2011
Source: 21st-Century Political Economies: Beyond Information Abundance. by Roberto Verzola. International Review of Information Ethics Vol. 11 (10/2009)
Roberto Verzola on The Demand Side of Abundance:
Abundance archetypes represent the supply side; let us now look at the demand side. It is almost by definition that economists predominantly focus on scarcity, when they define economics as the study of „the most efficient ways to allocate scarce resources to meet unlimited human wants‖. If, indeed, people had infinite wants, then not even all the resources of this finite world will be enough for a single person.
It can be argued, however, that consumer wants are not infinite. There exist physical, physiological, psychological and cultural limits – both actual and potential – to consumption which can keep individual as well as collective needs and wants within finite bounds.
If these needs and wants are finite, then satisfying them becomes a real possibility, and relative abun-dance is within reach.
The following concepts will help show that needs and wants can remain within finite bounds:
Economists define satiation as the consumption level which the consumer most prefers. The closer the consumer is to this level, writes economist Hal Varian, „the better off he is in terms of his own preferences‖.9 This satiation level for a bundle of goods is also called the bliss point. Beyond it, the consumer prefers to have less of the goods. Many economists still cling to the hedonist principle that „more is always preferred to less. But some acknowledge, at least in theory, that a satiation level exists for some, if not most, goods. Varian, in particular, says that most goods have a satiation point and that „you can have too much of nearly anything, which contradicts the „unlimited wants‖ assertion in most definitions of economics.
While satiation may apply more to the psychological attitude of a consumer not wanting more, saturation is more about the physiological or physical incapacity of a person to consume more. Beyond the saturation point, one's body either will become incapable or will involuntarily reject additional servings of food and drinks. One can only wear so many clothes, or shoes. One can listen to only so many CDs or watch only so many videos. There are only twenty-four hours a day after all.
To reach the brain, a sense stimulus takes around 10-20 milliseconds. To respond in a conscious way, neuro-scientists have found out, the brain takes longer – around 500 milliseconds (half a second).10 This suggests that our brain can only enjoy at most two distinct events every second or about 170,000 every twenty-four hours. For a world with some six billion people, that adds up to an upper limit of one quad (i.e., quadrillion) consumption events per day. That is a huge number, it is true, but finite neverthe-less. Most of us will probably exceed our saturation levels long before that point.
The argument for saturation is further strengthened by the findings of experimental psychologists that people – and animals too – get less pleasure from any stimulation, the more often it happens. Not only does the pleasure diminish, but the stimulation soon becomes undesirable. So, the finite time to consciously respond to sensory stimulation sets a limit to the variety of stimulation one can respond to, and a single type of stimulation will also soon become undesirable, likewise setting a limit on the desirable amount for that type. Economist Tibor Scitovsky has further argued that not all sources of stimulation can be exchanged in the market and therefore add to economic demand. All these support the argument for a finite bound to consumer needs and wants.
Even before we reach our satiation or saturation levels, we may already reach our „satisficed level, in which the quantity we have of a particular good or bundle of goods already suffices to satisfy, and beyond which we would only weakly prefer more. In contrast to satiation, which results in a strictly lower preference beyond the bliss point or satiation level, points beyond the satisficing level are either equally preferred or only so slightly or weakly preferred that it does not make a difference. The idea that consumers satisfice rather than optimize when fitting their wants to their budget was first raised by psychologist Herbert Simon, who subsequently won the Economics Nobel Prize in 1978.
Still another economic concept supports the idea of limited human wants. This is the concept of „inferior good, which are goods which we buy less of as our income increases. These tend to be goods which are considered „necessities, and whose consumption tends to plateau and even decrease, as consumers increase their income. The levelling off of consumption is a mark of self-limiting demand.
While any of these „sat‖ concepts – certainly all of them, together – are enough to argue that individual and likewise needs and wants have finite bounds, this paper is inclined to base its definition of abundance on the satisficing concept. On such basis, the following is asserted: some consumers have a satisficing level for some goods. As the price of a good goes down, consumers will then be able to afford enough to reach their satisficing levels. The following stronger assertion is further proposed: all consumers have a satisficing level for some goods.
The above assertions lead directly to a formal definition of abundance: when a person can afford enough quantity of a good or bundle of goods to reach his/her satisficed level, then the person enjoys a state of abundance for that good/bundle of goods. The concept is not new. Gandhi must have been referring to abundance when he said „the Earth has enough for everyone's need‖. This definition also allows a good's state of abundance with respect to one person to be quantified: it is the ratio of that person's affordable quantity (economists call this demand, which varies according to price) to his/her satisficing level, which is the point where any further reduction in price does not anymore increase that person's demanded quantity. For instance, if a person's satisficing level is five pairs of shoes, but s/he can only afford two pairs (i.e., s/he is only willing to buy two pairs at current prices), then s/he enjoys a state of abundance of 40% (two out of five) with respect to shoes. This makes it simple to relate abundance to its inverse, scarcity: the person needs three pairs more to reach the five-pair satisficed level. Thus s/he faces a scarcity level of 60%.
For a group of consumers, the level of abundance can be determined by aggregating the quantities each individual can afford (the demand), divided by the aggregate of their individual satisficing levels. This makes it possible, in theory, to determine the relative level of abundance (and scarcity) of a good for an entire society.
"Economists usually assume that business firms maximize their profits by producing until their mar-ginal cost (the cost of the next additional unit) equals their marginal revenue (unit price of the good). If, in addition to this behavioral assumption, diminishing returns or decreasing returns to scale – or equivalently -- increasing marginal costs are also assumed, then the increasing marginal costs will eventually equal the good's market price. In economic theory, this is the point of maximum profit. Thus business firms will, in theory, reach their satiation point when they reach their maximum profits.
This also means, however, that profitable firms employing technologies with constant or increasing returns to scale will face constant or decreasing marginal costs. They will therefore have no profit maximum and likewise no satiation level. These firms will conform to the theoretical hedonist idea that „more is always preferred to less.‖ They will try to keep increasing their scale of operations, in an unending chase for profits – making them an engine of globalization.
It is the profit-motive, it seems, that keeps us away from abundance, not „infinite― human wants." (http://www.i-r-i-e.net/inhalt/011/011-full.pdf)