"Two Institutions Required in Every Watershed: Commodity Ecology and Civic Democratic Institutions".
90 Commodities essential for human life
1. textiles 2. dyes/colorants (murex, cochineal, synthetic chemicals, derived organic coal based chemicals) 3. building materials/tool construction 4. metals 5. garbage/garbage disposal 6. soils/dirt 7. drugs/medicines 8. infant food 9. animal based food 10. vegetable based food 11. mycelium based food (mushrooms) 12. insect based food 13. transport 14. pollinators (introduced bees where none exist; or in some cases required hand pollination, in vanilla for instance; ultrasound/birdsong pollinators) 15. fertilizers 16. herbicides/pesticides 17. mineral food (typically only one: salt, sometimes earth/clays/dirt) 18. preservatives (salt, smoke, sun-dry/dehydrate, chemical, sugared, vacuum sealed, pickled, dry freeze, etc.) 19. communication/transmission technology (voice/sound, paper, mud brick cuneiform, silk rolls, papyrus, digital computers, pony express, telephone/telegraph, smoke signals from fires, semaphore, electrified metals/conductors, electromagnets, etc.) 20. condiments/flavorings 21. scents/incenses/fragrances 22. purifiers/cleansers/concentrators (soap, water, membrane sieves, clays, diatomaceous earth, ultrasound, gas diffusion/heat, etc.) 23. protectants (paint, plastic, electroplate, glass, bulletproof glass, etc.) 24. retardants (asbestos, inflammable materials, deoxygenators, glass, etc.) 25. insulators (wool, ice, straw, fiberglass, rags, vacuums, solid glass, plastic, stones/marble, etc.) 26. abrasives (diamond dust, carborundum, sandpaper, etc.) 27. lubricants 28. elastics (rubber, synthetic rubber) 29. coolants (ice, caves, chemicals, oils) 30. ambient heat (chemicals, caves, oil, hot springs, tallow, wood fires, antifreeze) 31. light/artificial light (sunlight, chemicals, oil (whale or abiotic), tallow, electricity/blubs, fire) 32. potable liquids (water, wine, sake, beer, cider, milk, tea, coffee, koumiss, etc.) 33. war materiels 34. energy (oil, solar, wood, nuclear, hydro/waterpower, charcoal, horse power, human labor, AC electricity, DC electricity, tides, zero-point technology, water based electrolysis engines, electromagnetic dynamos, etc.) 35. catalysts/mordants 36. energy storage (batteries, computer memory (a peculiar property of silicon only discovered in the 1950s), cynanobacteria (being linked as silicon substitutes in experiments) etc.) 37. aesthetics (brought into consumption simply because of perceived beauty, spirituality, and/or symbolism/ideology interests instead of a ‘material functionality’ prominent in many other consumptive positional categories) 38. musical instruments 39. toiletries 40. conductors 41. nonconductors 42. superconductors 43. semiconductors 44. environmental-proof/waterproof/airtight materials 45. adhesives 46. solvents 47. industrial tools/machine tools materials 48. tunneling/drilling materials 49. humans themselves as a ‘designed commodity’ (i.e., materials for those of eugenic bent, gene knowledge, etc.; or replaceable human parts whether transplants or cyborg machine substitutes like dialysis machines, artificial hearts, or artificial kidneys, etc.) 50. sense extensions (different from simply communications technology, actually going into human sensory areas that humans are ill equipped to do without aids of some sort) 51. calculation (human minds, abacus, computer, copper, silicon, superconductors, cynanobacteria, etc.) 52. software (from Jacquard’s loom to programmable Chinese textile machinery from the Later Han, etc.) 53. hardware 54. timekeeping (archaeoastronomy, moons, garden/plant clocks, calendars, mechanical clocks, water clocks, chronometers, Foucault pendulums, cesium atomic clock, etc.) 55. spacekeeping (string, plumb line, geodetic pyramid, compass azimuths, compasses) 56. climate manipulation (seeding, etc.) 57. money (state-financial decisions about money and exchange are equally a commodity and infrastructural issue influenced by the materiality of the commodity in question and politics of choice; local currency strategies, rice, metals/coins/bullion, paper, checks, digital transfers, stones, shells, salt, cider, cigarettes, etc.]) 58. remediation (zeolite, recycling filtration, etc.; various types of water and soil cleansing technologies dependent upon physical characteristics of the materials utilized, learning options, etc.) 59. dentistry 60. stimulants 61. hallucinogens 62. intoxicants 63. narcotics 64. hypnotics 65. psychedelics/entheogens 66. anesthetics 67. chemically inert materials. 68. poisons/antidotes/purgatives 69. surgical tools 70. experimental models 71. antiseptics 72. packing materials 73. fodder 74. shock-absorbents 75. real estate 76. services 77. funeral services 78. levitation 79. invisibility 80. transparent materials 81. anti-gravity / inertial variation 82. light-proof / electromagnetic-proof materials 83. insect repellents 84. sound-proof materials 85. contraceptives 86. breathable air 87. chemical fractionation 88. desiccants 89. moisturizers 90. life-extension