Collected Interviews of Michel Foucault

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* Book: Foucault Live. Michel Foucault. Collected Interviews, 1961-1984. Semiotexte.

Review

Michel Bauwens, April 2003:

Caution: The interviews vary from one topic to another, so the notes are necessarily lacking coherent structure as well. The notes are based on the first eleven interviews only.

- Foucault defines the modern age as beginning in 1790-1810 and ending in the 1950s.

- "My own work is very limited, it consists of trying to discover, in the history of science and knowledge, something that would be its own unconscious, its own set of laws and determinations"

- The main philosophical influences on Foucault were Husserl, Sartre and Merleau-Ponty. This influenced vanished in 1950-55 and was replaced by the more limited work of Jacobson n language and Dumezil in religion.

- Foucault does not look for the depth of things, for their foundation or origin, but for their materiality, and to which rules their concrete manifestations obey.


The Death of Progress and Reason

The new historians that inspired Foucault, the school of the Annales, focused on continuities (the longue duree), like the material civilisation of the European peasants, studied by Braudel. On the other hand, and at the same time, Foucault as the historian of ideas, started to look at discontinuities, rather than on the unending Progress of Reason


The Death of the Sovereign Subject

Why?

1) Because he is split

2) Because he is dependent and linked;

3) because he is not a origin, but a function ceaselessly modified


The Death of Man

Man, the independent and free subject, ('a theological man, after the death of God'), was a 19th cy. creation. It was hoped that by uncovering his determinations, he could live free from his alienations. It was hoped that through the human sciences, his depth would be uncovered. But in studying madness, one uncovered the unconscious, an endless mix, constituted as a language, and in examining that language, the only thing found were structures and correlations. Thus the theme of the 'death of Man' and the 'death of humanism'.


Death of Philosophy

With Sartre, philosophy as a totalising entreprise was replaced as a theoretical activity in many subdisciplines for the 'diagram of the present'.