Difference between revisions of "Category:Governance"

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'''This section covers both 1) the organizational microscale formats or methods used to govern peer production, FLOSS, and other non-coercive methods of governance; 2) the evolution on a macro-scale towards the dominance of collaborative networks'''
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'''* For a contextualized guide to key resources on Governance from a P2P perspective, see our page: [[Introduction to the P2P Foundation Wiki Material about Governance]]'''
  
This section is maintained by Michel Bauwens and adheres to [[Connective Hypothesis]], i.e. '''The key organizing pattern of our global culture is shifting from a top-down hierarchical pyramid to a distributed, self-organizing network.''' [http://theconnective.org/what-is-the-connective/]
 
  
(''this area is under construction: the Encyclopedia items related to governance have been ported until but not including M'')
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==Related Categories==
  
It is dedicated to the memory of Gerard Fairtlough (author of a book on [[Triarchy]], and advocate of [[Responsible Autonomy]]), who passed away on December 20, 2007.
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* For more specialized coverage of the governance practices and mechanisms in peer to peer communities, see our specialized [[:Category: Peergovernance]].
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* For deeper theoretical treatment, see our [[:Category: P2P Hierarchy Theory]] (vs more horizontal models of governance in p2p driven society)
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* For a deeper treatment on state forms, see our [[:Category: P2P State Approaches]]
  
For an understanding of the specificities of [[Peer Governance]], we strongly recommend the following book: '''[[Cyberchiefs]]. Autonomy and Authority in Online Tribes.''' Mathieu O’Neil. Macmillan/Pluto Press, 2009.
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=== See Also ===
 
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* [[Commons Governance]]
 
 
 
 
=Introduction=
 
 
 
[[Image:P2P_Governance_Visualization_2large.png|700X900px]]
 
 
 
[http://p2pfoundation.net/images/P2P_Governance_Visualization_2large.png Higher resolution version]
 
 
 
#Please read the following excerpts of [[David Ronfeldt on the Evolution of Governance]]
 
#You may want to read this important discussion document by Erik Douglas, '''[[Peer to Peer and the Four Pillars of Democracy]]''', which examines '''the relationship between [[Peer Governance]] and representative democracy'''.
 
#Henry Mintzberg's [http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~fmb/articles/mintzberg/ Taxonomy of Organizational Forms], is good as backgrounder.
 
#Billy Matheson's graphical representation on [http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/towards-the-co-created-society/2007/12/23 how relationality may or will affect governance]
 
#Felix Stadler insists: The [[Governance of Peer Production is Meritocratic, not Egalitarian]]
 
 
 
=Citations=
 
 
 
==Short Citations==
 
 
 
*The trust is to the commons as the corporation is to the market - Peter Barnes [http://onthecommons.org/node/1170]
 
 
 
*There are already plenty of existing examples to show that stakeholder trusts can achieve things that neither government nor markets can: responsible and equitable long-term management of a shared resource. - David Bollier [http://onthecommons.org/node/1170]
 
 
 
*The industrial Age of modernization brings the Secularization of authority, whereas the postindustrial stage brings emancipation from authority. - Alan Moore [http://communities-dominate.blogs.com/brands/2007/08/talking-about-1.html]
 
 
 
*The single most fundamental impact from all of these new capabilities may be felt in connection with the way in which we form the middle tier of the social fabric — organized, persistent, collaborating (non–governmental) groups. - David Johnson [http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_11/noveck/#note215]
 
 
 
*If we want to create an environment in which users have refined control, political control, you have to deal with two obstacles -- making code subject to political control, and making it possible for the group to own their own environment. - adapted from Clay Shirky [http://www.shirky.com/writings/nomic.html]
 
 
 
*Wikipedia’s success dramatizes instead a change in the nature of authority, moving from trust inhering in guarantees offered by institutions to probabilities created by processes. - Clay Shirky [http://www.techliberation.com/archives/040722.php]
 
 
 
*Self-organization and strong central control are (not) incompatible: individual projects self-organize because the participants choose to be there--they select themselves, and they  choose to follow the project's benevolent dictator (or else they leave). - Eric Raymond [http://www.softpanorama.org/OSS/webliography.shtml]
 
 
 
==Long Citations==
 
 
 
'''E.F. Schumacher against the professional cooptation of community''':
 
 
 
"The professional co-option of community efforts to invent appropriate techniques for citizens to care in community has been pervasive. Therefore, we need to identify the characteristics of those social forms that are resistant to colonization by service technologies while enabling communities to cultivate and care. These authentic social forms are characterized by three basic dimensions: they tend to be uncommodified, unmanaged, and uncurricularized. The tools of the bereavement counselor make grief into a commodity rather than an opportunity for community. Service technologies convert conditions into commodities and care into service.
 
 
 
The tools of the manager convert communality into hierarchy, replacing consent with control. Where once there was a commons, the manager creates a corporation. The tools of the pedagogue create monopolies in the place of cultures. By making a school of every-day life, community definitions and citizen action are degraded and finally expelled. It is this hard-working team—the service professional, the manager, and the pedagogue—that pulls the tools of "community busting" through the modern social landscape. If we are to recultivate community, we will need to return this team to the stable, abjuring their use."
 
(http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/lec-mck.html)
 
 
 
 
 
'''Kevin Werbach on Abundance as a Policy Goal:'''
 
 
 
“The cyber-solution to this governance dilemma is to fight the constraint that produces all the tensions: scarcity. Abundance trumps governance. There is no need to worry about resource allocation when there are more than enough resources to go around. And those who find their norms ill-served can choose a more suitable environment, because the costs of forming new groups and institutions are so low.
 
 
 
The good news is that cyberspace – if we let it – can be the greatest engine of abundance the world has ever known. From the billions of search clicks that Google pairs with targeted text ads to the millions of WiFi devices using shared wireless spectrum to the hundreds of thousands of books along Amazon.com’s long tail, abundance is the driving force of the Internet economy. It should be an abiding goal of Internet governance as well. Furthering the historical analogy, it was territorial expansion, to the Western edge of the continent and beyond, that channeled and checked the tensions of the nascent American constitutional republic.
 
 
 
If cyberspace is to be well-governed, therefore, it must grow. We must resist the temptation to look back nostalgically to the frontier homesteading days, when norms dominated because so many of them were shared. Let us, as David urges, embrace the Internet’s wondrous chaos. At the same time, though, let us sing the praises of its well-designed rules. The shared enemy is not structure, but exclusivity and other barriers to choice and connectivity.“
 
(http://publius.cc/2008/05/13/kevin-werbach-steering-to-the-edge-of-trust/)
 
 
 
 
 
'''Iqbal Quadir, founder of Grameenphone of Bangladesh:'''
 
 
 
"If concentration of power has contributed to poor governance, the solution must lie in dispersing power… ICTs empower from below while devolving power from above, resulting in a two-pronged attack on abuse of state power that has left so much of the world’s population languishing in poverty… ICTs can be the means to both freedom and development by blindsiding obstacles to both."
 
(http://p2pfoundation.ning.com/profile/TomCrowl)
 
 
 
=Typology=
 
 
 
The entries in the directory below covers different aspects which should be distinguished from each other:
 
 
 
#'''The forms of peer governance of open/free communities and peer production groups.''' See A [[Model of a Mature Open Source Project]] for a case study of the Plone community.
 
## Informal leadership models that are pragmatically used to govern such projects: what is the nature of leadership and hierarchy in peer production?
 
##* See [[Hierarchy]], [[Leadership]], [[Benevolent Dictator]], and search for these concepts as well as "Authority" in the wiki's search box.
 
## The use of formal management models.
 
##* See [[Chaordic Organizations - Characteristics]] , [[Consensus]] , [[Consent vs. Consensus]] , [[Coordination Format]] , [[Council Ceremony]] , [[Harmonization Governance]] , [[Heterarchy]] , [[Holacracy]] , [[Horizontal Accountablity]] , [[Leaderless Organizations]] , [[Open Organization]] , [[Sociocracy]]
 
## The use of legal formats such as Foundations to formalize leadership of the infrastructure that enables the common production to occur.
 
##* See [[Burning Man - Governance]] , [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Software_Foundation Free Software Foundation] , [[FLOSS - Governance]] , [[FLOSS Foundations]] , [[GNOME Foundation]] , [[Mozilla Foundation]], [[OpenBSD Foundation]]
 
## Formal legislative process in government and political parties. Apart from non-representational self-governance models in the small teams responsible for peer production, whenever the allocation of scarce resources need to takes place, 'peer-informed' representational models will arise.
 
##* See for an example, the [[Green Party Integrated Consensus-Consent-Voting Model]]
 
# '''The methods of production used in peer production: how is the work actually done?'''
 
##The tools used in the production process (ie. Bitkeeper, CVS, etc.)
 
##The design of interactions at the level of the product/technological architecture (modularity, encapsulation, information hiding)
 
# '''The forms of governance/ownership/income distribution for the derived and monetizable service and market-oriented production models that derive from commons-related projects'''
 
##Modes of capital organization
 
##* [[Trusts]] ; [[Capital Commons Trusts]] , [[Cooperative Capital]] , [[Limited Liability Partnership]] , [[Mutual Home Ownership]], [[Venture Communism]]. Concepts: [[Blended Value]], [[Good Capital]], [[Open Capital]], [[Open Organization]], [[Patient Capital]]
 
##Modes of property organization
 
##* [[General Public License]] , [[Creative Commons]]
 
## Modes of revenue sharing with commercial partners (includes netarchical and vectoralist partners)
 
# '''Political governance models for the whole of society that are inspired by peer to peer models or principles'''
 
#*[[Citizen Dialogue and Deliberation]] , [[Commons]] , [[Community Assets]] , [[Coordination Format]] , [[Council Ceremony]] , [[Delegative Democracy]] , [[Deliberative Democracy]] , [[Deliberative Development]] , [[Democracy 2.1]] , [[Disaggregated Democracy]] , [[Extreme Democracy]] , [[Gaian Democracies]] , [[Global Microstructures]] , [[Global Villages]] , [[Glocalized Networks]] , [[Inclusive Democracy]] , [[Inclusive Sovereignty]] ,  [[Megacommunities]] , [[Participatory Democracy Networks]]
 
# '''Political philosophies and governance proposals inspired by peer to peer (egalitarian) ideals.'''
 
 
 
=Resources at the P2P Foundation=
 
 
 
==Key Blog Entries==
 
 
 
Check out the [http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/?cat=20 Archive] of the P2P Foundation blog on P2P Hierarchy Theory, for a full record on our articles.
 
 
 
==Key Delicious Tags==
 
 
 
*[http://del.icio.us/mbauwens/P2P-Governance P2P Governance]
 
*[http://del.icio.us/mbauwens/P2P-Politics P2P Politics]
 
*[http://del.icio.us/mbauwens/P2P-Political-Theory P2P-Political-Theory]
 
*[http://del.icio.us/mbauwens/P2P-Commons P2P Commons]
 
*[http://del.icio.us/mbauwens/Alterglobalization-Movement Alterglobalization Movement]
 
*[http://del.icio.us/mbauwens/Internet-Governance Internet Governance]
 
*[http://del.icio.us/mbauwens/Cooperatives Cooperatives]
 
*[http://del.icio.us/mbauwens/P2P-Hierarchy-Theory P2P Hierarchy Theory]
 
 
 
==Thematic Issues of P2P News==
 
 
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p98 P2P Economic Governance, tools], Issue 98 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p97 P2P and Economic Governance, theory], Issue 97 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p95 Multitudes], Issue 95 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p93 P2P Political Theory and Practice], Issue 93 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p92 Empire and Multitudes], Issue 92 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p90 Peer Governance], Issue 90 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p88  P2P and Cooperation], Issue 88 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p87 P2P Hierarchy Theory], Issue 87 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p77 On the Commons] Issue 77 of P2P News
 
* [http://integralvisioning.org/article.php?story=p2p76 P2P Cooperation and Activism], Issue 76 of P2P News
 
 
 
=Other Resources=
 
 
 
==Key Articles==
 
 
 
*A must read: The [http://www.metamute.org/en/Immaterial-Aristocracy-of-the-Internet Immaterial Aristocracy of the Internet]], a meditation on the humans behind [[Protocollary Power]], by Harry Halpin.
 
*[http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/itgg.2007.2.3.27 Collapsing Geography]: on Second Life, Innovation, and the Future of National Power. By Cory Ondrejka.
 
*[http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/itgg.2007.2.3.68 What Second Life teaches us about sovereignty]. Paul Verkuil on the challenges of virtual citizenship.
 
*Manuel De Landa: [[Hierarchies and Meshworks are always mixed]] ; [http://t0.or.at/delanda/meshwork.htm Full article]
 
*Be aware of the [http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/architectures-of-control-in-the-digital-environment/ Architectures of Control in the Digital Environment], such as [[DRM]] and [[Trusted Computing]].
 
*[http://publius.cc/2008/05/12/david-weinberger-tacit-governance/ Tacit vs. Explicit Governance]: David Weinberger argues that the tacit governance model of the internet is a sign of its strength, not a weakness
 
*Pierre de Vries on [[Governance through Principles]] instead of rules [http://publius.cc/2008/05/14/pierre-de-vries-internet-forestry-a-principles-approach-to-governan/]
 
*Interview: [[Clay Shirky on the New Style of Peer Leadership]]
 
*[[Three Levels of FOSS Governance]]
 
*The [[Power of Statelessness]]. By Jakub Grygiel: The withering appeal of the state [http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/41708942.html]
 
 
 
==Key Books==
 
 
 
*[[Protocol]] by Alexander Galloway, discusses the nature of power in distributed networks.
 
*The [[Success of Open Source]], by Steve Webber, discusses the governance of free software and open sorce software projects in detail.
 
*The [[Future of the Internet]] - and how to stop it. Jonathan Zittrain on an open [[Internet Governance]] that protects a free and [[Generative Internet]]
 
*Shirky, C. (2008). [[Here Comes Everybody]]: '''The power of organizing without organizations'''. New York: The Penguin Press.
 
*[[Cyberchiefs]]. Autonomy and Authority in Online Tribes. Mathieu O’Neil. Macmillan/Pluto Press, 2009.
 
 
 
Also:
 
 
 
#[[Ruling the Root]]. Milton L. Mueller. Excellent review of technical issues related to the technical governance of the internet, but I have to question a book which says that the internet is dead as a locus for innovation. (MB)
 
 
 
==Key Resources==
 
 
 
* Steven Clift monitors e-democracy initiatives, at http://www.publicus.net/e-government/
 
* Paul Hartzog on Panarchy, at http://www.panarchy.com
 
* Tom Atlee is founder of '''The Co-Intelligence Institute''', at http://www.co-intelligence.org
 
 
 
Read his summary: '''A Spectrum of Politics and Governance Grounded in Empowered Citizen Dialogue and Deliberation''',  [http://www.communicationagents.com/tom_atlee/2005/07/04/a_spectrum_of_politics_and_governance_grounded_in_empowered_citizen_dialogue_and_deliberation.htm]
 
 
 
There is an extraordinary collection of concrete research on the governance of peer production communities (Debian, Apache), accessible from here [http://ses.enst.fr/enstcommed/index.htm], which leads to two seminar pages here [http://ses.enst.fr/enstcommed/vote.htm] and here
 
[http://e.darmon.free.fr/workcommed/program.html]. If you know French, this is highly recommended.
 
 
 
The Observatory of Public Debates [http://www.debatpublic.net/observatoire/ObservatoryOfPublicDebates]
 
has an observatory for free software that can be used for internet-based public debate processes
 
[http://www.debatpublic.net/observatoire/Tools]
 
 
 
[http://technologyandsocialaction.org/node/190 Josef Davies-Coates] maintains a directory of online and offline [[Decision-Making Tools]], which he keeps updated through this [http://del.icio.us/qopi/decision_making bookmark]
 
 
 
[[Net Dialogue]] is the key resource site on [[Internet Governance]]
 
 
 
==Selected Wikipedia Articles==
 
 
 
* [[Wikipedia: Alterglobalisation]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Co-intelligence]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Collaborative Intelligence]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Free Content]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Free software]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Free Software Foundation]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Free Software Movement]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Open Source Intelligence]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Open Source Movement]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Public Domain]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Reputation]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Smart Mobs]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Social Networking]]
 
* [[Wikipedia: Swarm Intelligence]]
 
 
 
 
 
=The P2P Governance Encyclopedia=
 

Latest revision as of 13:08, 30 January 2021

* For a contextualized guide to key resources on Governance from a P2P perspective, see our page: Introduction to the P2P Foundation Wiki Material about Governance


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