Difference between revisions of "Category:Energy"
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- Blair Fix [https://economicsfromthetopdown.com/2020/07/11/why-america-wont-be-great-again/]
- Blair Fix [https://economicsfromthetopdown.com/2020/07/11/why-america-wont-be-great-again/]
Latest revision as of 07:21, 5 November 2020
- 1 Introductory citation
- 2 Introductory Material
- 2.1 The necessary transformation of our energy infrastructure
- 2.2 Articles
- 2.3 Books
- 2.4 Concepts
- 2.5 Visualizations
- 3 Typology
- 4 Energy Crowdfunding Platforms
- 5 Topics
- 6 Policy Proposals
- 7 Short Citations
- 8 Long Quotations
- 9 Key Resources
- 9.1 Key Companies
- 9.2 Key Podcasts
- 9.3 Key Statistics
- 9.4 Key Videos
- 9.5 Open Source Energy Projects
Networked (distributed, p2p) energy anchors a networked economy and society:
'As long as fossil-fuel energies underlie every aspect of the global economy, every other commercial enterprise that relies on these fuels for its materials, power generation, and logistics will be forced by necessity to continue using a vertically integrated business model and centralized management to achieve its own economies of scale and stay alive.'
- Jeremy Rifkin (Zero-Margin Society)
- Commons-Based Renewable Energy in the Age of Climate Collapse. By David Hammerstein.
- Energy Commons as the Missing Link Between Energy Transition and Climate Justice
- Related Commons Concepts:
- Commons-Based Cases in Alternative Energy
- Energy Commons ; Energy from the Perspective of the Commons
- Info-Energy Commons
- Petroleum Commons
- Solar Commons
- Renewable Energy Commons
"Energy is the material basis for human survival and development. . . .
- The first industrial revolution, from 1770 to 1860, . . . . . . was built on Coal in England. . . .
- The second industrial revolution, from 1910 to 2010, . . . . . . was built on Electricity in United States. . . .
- The third industrial revolution, . . . . . . will be built on Renewable Energy and Energy Internet."
The necessary transformation of our energy infrastructure
1. Daniel Pinchbeck:
"A number of recent studies on renewable energy help to define and clarify the path to a global transition.
Stanford engineering professor Mark Jacobson proposed that worldwide energy production could become almost entirely renewable by 2030. According to Jacobson and his coauthors in 2009, “The obstacles are primarily political, not technical.” Jacobson has launched The Solutions Project, with a plan for every state in the United States to completely transition to renewable energy within a few decades.
Developed under the leadership of Columbia University economist Jeffrey Sachs, Pathways to Deep Decarbonization offers the outline for a worldwide plan to shift to renewable energy. The plan has three basic aspects: Increasing energy efficiency and conservation, rapidly developing low-carbon sources of electricity, and fuel switching: “Switching end-use energy supplies from highly carbon-intensive fossil fuels in transportation, buildings, and industry to lower carbon fuels including low-carbon electricity, other low-carbon energy carriers synthesized from electricity generation of sustainable biomass, or lower-carbon fossil fuels.”
In The Third Industrial Revolution, economic and social theorist Jeremy Rifkin promotes an optimistic alternative.
The revolution is based on:
(1) shifting to renewable energy;
(2) transforming the building stock of every continent into green micro–power plants to collect renewable energies on-site;
(3) deploying hydrogen and other storage technologies in every building and throughout the infrastructure to store intermittent energies;
(4) using Internet technology to transform the power grid of every continent into an energy internet that acts just like the Internet (when millions of buildings are generating a small amount of renewable energy locally, on-site, they can sell surplus green electricity back to the grid and share it with their continental neighbors); and
(5) transitioning the transport fleet to electric plug-in and fuel cell vehicles that can buy and sell green electricity on a smart, continental, interactive power grid." (https://www.minds.com/blog/view/456257048271654912/toward-regenerative-society-plan-for-rapid-transition)
2. Richard Heinberg:
"having spent a year working with David Fridley of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assess the prospects for a complete transition to solar and wind power.
We found that the transition to renewables is going far too slowly to make much of a difference during the crucial next couple of decades, and would be gobsmackingly expensive if we were to try replacing all fossil fuel use with solar and wind. We also found, as the film underscores again and again, that the intermittency of sunshine and wind is a real problem—one that can only be solved with energy storage (batteries, pumped hydro, or compressed air, all of which are costly in money and energy terms); or with source redundancy (building way more generation capacity than you’re likely to need at any one time, and connecting far-flung generators on a super-grid); or demand management (which entails adapting our behavior to using energy only when it’s available). All three strategies involve trade-offs. In the energy world, there is no free lunch. Further, the ways we use energy today are mostly adapted to the unique characteristics of fossil fuels, so a full transition to renewables will require the replacement of an extraordinary amount of infrastructure in our food system, manufacturing, building heating, the construction industry, and on and on. Altogether, the only realistic way to make the transition in industrial countries like the US is to begin reducing overall energy usage substantially, eventually running the economy on a quarter, a fifth, or maybe even a tenth of current energy." (https://www.resilience.org/stories/2020-04-27/review-planet-of-the-humans/?)
- mustread: DOTSON T.C. & J.E. WILCOX (2016). Generating Community, Generating Justice? The Production and Circulation of Value in Community Energy Initiatives, Revista Teknokultura Vol. 13(2), 511-540. : how to judge the generativity quotient of distributed energy initiatives ?
- Information Technology is Good for the Environment and for the Climate. Joe Romm and . Jonathan Koomey.
- A P2P Approach To Energy Production: by Chris Giotitsas, Alex Pazaitis & Vasilis Kostakis. P2P Lab,
- A reading list of key energy writers, recommended by John Thackara: here
- Can Renewable Energy Sustain Consumer Societies? Samuel Alexander and Ted Trainer.
- Introduction: Energy from the Perspective of the Commons
- George Papanikolaou – Peer to Peer Energy Production and the Social Conflicts in the Era of Green Development; with Vasilis Kostakis, see the P2P Energy Manifesto
- Jeremy Rikin on the Energy Internet: [When New Communication Technologies Converge With New Energy Systems]]
- John Robb on the Energy Trap: there is no replacing of fossil fuels by renewables under the current economic models
- Nine Pitfalls of Alternative Energy: "This isn’t an argument against alternative energy. It is however an argument against having unreasonable expectations for what alternative energy sources can deliver in the short time span in which we’ll need to transition to them."
- Jeff Vail on the Energy Trap: a detailed investigation ; Jeff Vail’s Call for a Scale-Free Energy Policy
- Eric Hunting – On the prospects and strategy of peer-to-peer energyl
- John Michael Greer: The fundamental limits in energy supplies ; Reply to Greer by Stuart Staniford: Limits on the Thermodynamic Potential of Archdruids
- What we should know about past energy transitions. Cutler Cleveland on energy transitions.
- John Thackara: When Renewable Energy Becomes a Snake Oil Recipe
- Correcting Negative Myths about Renewable Energy
- Joshua Pearce, Photovoltaics - A Path to Sustainable Futures
- The Internet is NOT an Energy Hog
- Reaching Net-Zero Carbon Emissions by Mid-Century: Reaching net-zero carbon emissions from harder-to-abate sectors by mid-century. Energy Transitions Commission, 2018
- Open Hardware is energy smart: see Dominic Muren on the Ecological Advantages of Open Hardware Manufacturing
- Michel Bauwens – Setting the broader context for P2P infrastructures: The long waves and the new social contract'
- Wiener, J., 2005. Sharing Potential and the Potential for Sharing: Open Source Licensing as a Legal and Economic Modality for the Dissemination of Renewable Energy Technology, Boston: Suffolk University Law School. 
- Sawin, J,L, & Moomaw, W, R. Renewable Revolution: Low-Carbon Energy by 2030. World Watch Institute [online] (2009). http://www.worldwatch.org/bookstore/publication/renewable-revolution-low...
Bill St. Arnaud
- Using eVehicles for Renewable Energy Transportation and Distribution: http://goo.gl/bXO6x and http://goo.gl/UDz37
- Free High Speed Internet to the Home or School Integrated with solar roof top: http://goo.gl/wGjVG
- High level architecture of Internet Networks to survive Climate Change: http://goo.gl/juWdH
- Architecture and routing protocols for Energy Internet http://goo.gl/niWy1g
- John Thackara's Thermodynamic Bibliography: 13 suggestions, the best book and resources for understanding the biophysical limits of the human economy.
- Edward Morbius recommends 3 books for seeing history through the lens of energy:
- Vaclav Smil's use of energy as a lens (Energy in History (1994) and Energy and Civilisations (2017)) in particular.
- There are only a handful of other writers who've used that approach, Manfred Weisenbacher (_Sources of Power (2009)) being among the few others, and drawing heavily on Smil's first book.
See also: ?
- Book by David Holmgren on Energy Scenarios
- "Sparking A Worldwide Energy Revolution" is "a major contribution to the movement working for a transition from carbon capitalism to an ecologically sound energy system. Its sixty chapters document the present energy crisis, describe alternative technologies, and introduces us to the people who worldwide are fighting for a healthy planet and the recreation of the earth's commons" 
- David MacKay . Sustainable Energy – Without the Hot Air.
(calculats whether the UK could transfer to a 100% renewable energy economy. His answer: 'yes, but'.)
- Vaclav Smil . Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization. : dematerialization works but is systematically offset by growth imperative.
- Jeremy Rifkin. The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World, Palgrave Macmillan 2011.
- On the Bio-Physical Triggers of Political Violence, see: Failing States, Collapsing Systems. BioPhysical Triggers of Political Violence. Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed. Springer, 2017 
- Peer-to-Peer Energy Grid
- Global Energy Commons ; Energy as a Commons ; Energy Commons ; Info-Energy Commons ; Renewable Energy Commons ; World Energy Grid
- Decentralized Energy ; Decentralized Renewable Energy
- Distributed Energy Financing ; Distributed Generation Systems ; Distributed Power Generation ; Distributed Renewable Energy
- Distributed Solar ; Distributed Wind Energy ; Distributed Wind Power
- Micro Hydropower ; Microgeneration ; Microgrids ; Micropower ; Microsolar ; Peer-to-Peer Microgrid Networks
- P2P Energy ; P2P Energy Economy ; Peer-to-Peer Power Economy
Source for the following 3 tables: 
Current Problems from Power Grid Centralization
Current Problems from a Centralized Energy Economy
Grid Reforms that fail to Decentralize Power
"The four types of renewable energies that Benjamin Dessus and Bernard Devin (2007) distinguish:
- photon energy (solar);
- mechanical energy (wind, hydraulic, tides, and waves);
- thermal energy (geothermal, ocean thermal energy); and
- combustion energy (biomass)."
"Energy alternatives seem to enable a series of changes:
- From centralization to decentralization (reconfiguration of polarizations)
- From distance to proximity (reconfiguration of scales)
- From dependency to self-sufficiency (reconfiguration of relations to “large technical systems”
The three forms of distributed finance for distributed energy:
- Leasing, e.g. Solar Leasing Financial Model
- Community Power, e.g. Community Solar Financial Model
- Power Purchase Agreements, e.g. Solar Power Purchase Agreements
More information on the theory: Peer to peer finance mechanisms to support renewable energy growth
- Key Concepts:
- Key articles:
- Bill McKibben on Why We Need a P2P Energy Grid; Jeremy Rifkin on the InterGrid
- Towards a World Wide Web of Electricity. Michael Powers.
- How Green Capitalism Differs from Distributed P2P Energy Projects. Kevin Carson.
- Report: Sustainable Agriculture and Off-Grid Renewable Energy. Dr. Mae-Wan Ho. ISIS contribution to UNCTAD Trade and Environment Review 2011 
- How Renewables Will Change Electricity Markets
- The bright future of solar thermal powered factories
- Status reports:
- Global Clean Energy Investments 2005-2009. G20 stats compiled by Hazel Henderson et al.
- Global Renewable Energy Status Report 2009
- 2007 Status of Decentralized Renewables and Micropower
- Peer Production and Industrial Cooperation in Alternative Energy
- The energy transition juggernaut : lots of both objective (uptake) and subjective (public opinion) stats
Let's not forget:
- The Case against Nuclear Energy and for Renewables. By Conrad Miller.
- Report: Smart 2020, enabling the low carbon economy in the information age
- The monster footprint of digital technology: The power consumption of our high-tech machines and devices is hugely underestimated. Here are the statistics to give insight in the true ecological cost of our digital infrastructures.
- The Energy Efficiency Fallacy
- How much energy does the Internet use?
- ICTs in the home account for almost 50% of energy use
- IT to consume 40% of world's electricity by 2030
- Surveying the Territory of Energy Alternatives, check the Report: Energy Alternatives: Surveying the Territory. Corner House, 2013:  The main conflict in energy policy today is not between 'business as usual' and 'The Alternative', but among the many different proposed alternatives themselves.
- Five Policy Solutions to the Climate and Energy Crisis. By Richard Heinberg of the Post Carbon Institute
- The "centralized" $420b Solar Grand Plan of Scientific American.
- Peter Barnes commons-based proposal: Why We Need a Cap and Dividend based Skytrust to solve Global Warming
- Neither Carbon Taxation, nor Cap and Trade and Cap and Dividend will work, nor even pass, because it combines immediate hardship with deferred benefits; what is needed are Cap and Reward systems, which immediately reward virtuous behaviours, argues Bill St. Arnaud
- Beware of the Energy Efficiency Fallacy
- Chris Cook's proposal for a Global Natural Energy Grid
- Thermoeconomics]: scientific pathways to solar energy
Specifics: Green Computing
Proposals for Green Computing, by Bill St. Arnaud:
- Free Fiber to the Home
- Green Grid
- Green Broadband
- Follow the Energy Computing Grids
- Bits for Carbon Trading
- Virtualization as strategy for green computing
- ICT and Global Warming. Bill St. Arnaud
In the wake of the Lovelock and Wired magazine arguments, Alex Steffen expresses his concerns about nuclear and his desire to see a global commitment to creating a clean-energy economy.
Alex Steffen shares a 2006 report that states that nuclear is not a climate-friendly energy source.
Research from Stanford University ranks the world's energy options -- putting wind, concentrated solar and geothermal at the top of the list, and nuclear power and coal with carbon capture and sequestration in a tie for dead last.
- Transforming the energy matrix: Transition Policies for the Development of the Distributed Energy Model. by George Dafermos, Panos Kotsampopoulos, et al.  ; General Principles for Policy Making for Distributed Energy
- A proposed Cooperative Strategy for Distributed Renewable Energy. By Kevin Carson.
General articles about energy future challenges:
- Sustainable Energy for World Economies. Tariq Muneer.
- Energy Security and the Social Use of Energy. Igor MatutinoviĆ.
- Open-source development of solar photovoltaic technology
Renewable Energy Transition Plans
- Jeffrey Sachs: Pathways to Deep Decarbonization
- Jeremy Rifkin's Internet of Energy Policy Proposals
Via  :
"a team of scientists from Stanford University led by Mark Jacobson published a study showing how New York State could switch to a 100 percent renewable energy infrastructure by 2030–a highly ambitious plan that would only wind, water solar energy to power not just electricity but all forms of energy consumption, including building heating and cooling and transportation. The plan is a follow up to a more general proposal that powers the entire world with renewable energy in less than two decades". (http://news.stanford.edu/news/2013/march/new-york-energy-031213.html)
- a team led by Vasilis Fthenakis, a senior research scientist at Columbia University’s department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, published a study showing how the entire United States could go renewable
- in 2011 a World Wildlife Federation report (prepared by Ecofys Consulting) has laid out another path to 100 percent renewable energy.
Equipment powering the internet accounts annually for 9.4% (or 350 billion kWh) of the total electricity consumption in the US, and 5.3% (or 868 billion kWh) of the global usage. 
"Energy independence at the local level is in large part achieved by eliminating reliance on any single energy source, whether that is oil, gas, natural gas, biofuels, wood, solar, or wind. In other words, resilient communities need to be able to input all available energy sources and convert them into a standardized format. Further, that format must be usable in a plethora of different ways."
- John Robb 
"The industrial capacity for building alternatives is a tiny fraction of what would be needed to substitute for fossil fuels even within 2 decades, given the massive scale required. (Just to give an idea of the scale involved – per Bill McKibben’s must-read book Eaarth the sunk cost of today’s fossil fuel infrastructure is $10 trillion, and would require 10-50 years of operation for capital cost recovery.) Almost none of the substitutes provides a dense liquid fuel substitute for oil that can be used in transportation or agriculture. The only alternative that does – algae-based biofuel – is extremely far from commercial viability and requires even more land area per unit energy than corn-based ethanol."
- barath 
Bill McKibben on the Carbon Bubble
"The oil companies, private and state-owned, have current reserves on the books equivalent to 2,795 gigatons -- five times more than we can ever safely burn. It has to stay in the ground. Put another way, in ecological terms it would be extremely prudent to write off $20 trillion worth of those reserves. In economic terms, of course, it would be a disaster, first and foremost for shareholders and executives of companies like ExxonMobil (and people in places like Venezuela). If you run an oil company, this sort of write-off is the disastrous future staring you in the face as soon as climate change is taken as seriously as it should be, and that’s far scarier than drought and flood. It’s why you’ll do anything -- including fund an endless campaigns of lies -- to avoid coming to terms with its reality."
- Bill McKibben 
"The history of empire, I argue, isn’t written in the speeches and proclamations of elites. Instead, it’s written in the language of energy. Although the motivations for empire building differ between societies, the end result is always the same. A successful empire centralizes the flow of energy. This means that energy use (per person) in the empire’s core will dwarf energy use in the periphery. The degree that this is true marks the degree that the empire is successful Energy use, then, provides a window into the rise and fall of empires. Let’s look through this window and see what we find. We’ll look first at the grandest scale of all — the 10,000-year history of civilization. Permanent settlements first arose in the Mediterranean basin in an area that anthropologists call the ‘Levant’. It was here that agriculture started. And it was here that agriculture was first intensified using irrigation. Not surprisingly, the Levant was where the first empires emerged. The rise and fall of these proto-empires should be written in the language of energy. Unfortunately, the ‘book of energy’ has long since been lost. The first civilizations kept few written records. And most of their physical artifacts have been destroyed. So how can we estimate the energy use of early empires? We make an educated guess. That’s exactly what Ian Morris does in his book The Measure of Civilization."
- Blair Fix 
"We are used to worrying about the costs of overcapacity - producing more power than is needed. That's because the fuel used to generate power is expensive.
Not so with renewables. Once you've built them, the power they generate from the wind and sun comes virtually free of charge.
RethinkX says this will do to energy what the internet and smartphones have done to data. Thirty years ago there was an inherent physical cost to every newspaper printed or photo taken. Now that everything is digital, the only limit on how much we read or post on Instagram is the number of hours in our day. RethinkX argues that instead of simply replacing existing fossil fuel plants with wind and solar - and then worrying about the cost of plugging those big intermittency gaps - we should just build more and more and more wind and solar, perhaps several times the capacity of the existing electricity grid. Remember, the more we build, the cheaper it gets. So long as we spread them over a wide enough area we'll always get some power. And we can plug the few small gaps remaining with batteries or other power plants."
- Justin Rowlatt (on RethinkX0 
- Category: Energy - Open Source Ecology wiki
- The Energy section of Appropedia
- Energy Collective : an independent, moderated community of professionals focused on the complex challenges of meeting the world's energy needs sustainably.
- Wind Works Archive : Online archive of articles on wind energy, feed-in tariffs, and advanced renewable tariffs.
- To monitor developments, see also our Delicious tag on P2P Energy
- the Distributed Generation Educational Module
For distributed energy creation:
- Nanosolar: plastic solar panel manufacture: “Panel cost of manufacture is said to be $0.30 per watt. Panel cost at retail is around $1. Price of a machine which will print panels: $0.16 per panel per year.”
- Konarka Technologies: “thinks their panels will be about 1/3 the price of nanosolar. In about a year or so.”
- Jellyfish Wind Turbines: $400 a pop
- The Micropower Council - UK  : represents companies and organisations active in the microgeneration sector.
- "Coal, oil and gas get more than $370bn (£305bn) a year in support, compared with $100bn for renewables, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) report found. Just 10-30% of the fossil fuel subsidies would pay for a global transition to clean energy, the IISD said." 
- "“… studies among at least 11 independent research groups have found that transitioning to 100% renewable energy in one or all energy sectors, while keeping the electricity and/or heat grids stable at reasonable cost, is possible” Jacobson study 1; 2 ; 3
Wind and Solar are much cheaper than nuclear
"Wind and solar are an awful lot faster to build than nuclear, with first power within two years, and full replacement possible in fifteen years. If we compare the savings over the 30 years, we would get triple the benefit with a saving of around 33 billion tons for wind and solar vs 11 billion tons for nuclear. And wind and solar are a lot cheaper than nuclear. Right now unsubsidized onshore wind and solar are under $40 per MWH or 4 cents per KWH, and many places are already seeing $20 per MWH. So that’s 2.5 to 7.5 times cheaper than the nuclear. Oh, and you have to start spending the money on the nuclear now in order to get the deferred reduced benefits much later. While spending on new electrical generation isn’t a zero-sum game, there is a moderately non-elastic amount of money to spend on it. Any money spent on slow-to-build nuclear reduces the amount available to spend on fast-to-build renewables. Economically and environmentally, nuclear doesn’t make much sense. I’m happy for every plant that gets turned on, refurbished, and not prematurely shelved because right now that means that gas and coal aren’t being used, but we can go further faster with wind and solar."
- Michael Barnard 
Benefits of 100% renewable transition confirmed by Jacobson study
"The Earth is approaching 1.5°C global warming, air pollution kills over 7 million people yearly, and limited fossil fuel resources portend social instability. Rapid solutions are needed. We provide Green New Deal roadmaps for all three problems for 143 countries, representing 99.7% of world’s CO2 emissions. The roadmaps call for countries to move all energy to 100% clean, renewable wind-water-solar (WWS) energy, efficiency, and storage no later than 2050 with at least 80% by 2030. We find that countries and regions avoid blackouts despite WWS variability. Worldwide, WWS reduces energy needs by 57.1%, energy costs from $17.7 to $6.8 trillion/year (61%), and social (private plus health plus climate) costs from $76.1 to $6.8 trillion/year (91%) at a capital cost of ∼$73 trillion. WWS creates 28.6 million more long-term, full-time jobs than are lost and needs only 0.17% and 0.48% of land for footprint and space, respectively. Thus, WWS needs less energy, costs less, and creates more jobs than current energy." (https://www.cell.com/one-earth/fulltext/S2590-3322(19)30225-8)
On the potential of a transition
Richard Heinberg on the conclusions of his research for his book, Our Renewable Future:
"Our ultimate conclusion was that, while renewable energy can indeed power industrial societies, there is probably no credible future scenario in which humanity will maintain current levels of energy use (on either a per capita or total basis). Therefore current levels of resource extraction, industrial production, and consumption are unlikely to be sustained—much less can they perpetually grow. Further, getting to an optimal all-renewable energy future will require hard work, investment, adaptation, and innovation on a nearly unprecedented scale. We will be changing more than our energy sources; we’ll be transforming both the ways we use energy and the amounts we use. Our ultimate success will depend on our ability to dramatically reduce energy demand in industrialized nations, shorten supply chains, electrify as much usage as possible, and adapt to economic stasis at a lower overall level of energy and materials throughput. Absent widespread informed popular support, the political roadblocks to such a project will be overwhelming.
That’s not what most people want to hear. And therefore, frankly, we need some help getting this analysis out to the sorts of people who might benefit from it." (http://www.postcarbon.org/tiptoeing-through-the-renewable-energy-minefield/)
- Renewable energy passed up nuclear in total installed power capacity in 2010 (worldwide) Clean Technica 
- Annual government subsidies for renewables amount to $57 billion, compared with $b312 for fossil fuels 
- Solar energy is now cheaper than nuclear energy 
- 51% of all renewable energy in Germany is owned by individual citizens or farms, totaling $100 billion worth of private investment in clean energy. 
- "According to the report, more than a quarter (27.8%) of the world’s generating capacity now comes from renewables, with developing world investments on par with that of the developed world. Solar PV capacity has grown at a phenomenal rate, up 48-fold over the last decade while wind power capacity is up 8-fold." 
- "Bhandari et al. surveyed 231 articles on photovoltaic technologies, finding that, under average Southern European irradiation, the mean EROI of the most common PV technology (polycrystalline Si) is about 11-12. Other technologies (e.g. CdTe) were found to have even better EROIs. Maybe these values are still lower than those of some fossil fuels, but surely not much lower (if they are lower) and a far cry from the legend of the "EROI smaller than one" that's making the rounds on the Web. Then, if you are worried about another common legend, the one that says that PV cells degrade rapidly, think that those of the plant described at the beginning of this article were found to be still working after 30 years of operation, having lost just about 10% of their initial efficiency! In addition, consider that the most common kind of cells use only common elements of the earth's crust: silicon and aluminum (and a little silver, but that's not essential). What more can you ask from a technology that's efficient, sustainable, and long lasting?
- Ugo Bardi 
The Pivot of 2015
- "The world installed more new renewable energy last year than coal, as countries attempt to shift away from fossil fuels and take advantage of massive cost reductions in wind and solar technology.
More than half of all energy generation capacity added in 2015 came from renewable sources, as the world installed more than half a million solar panels a day and two wind turbines every hour, the International Energy Agency announced Tuesday." (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/renewable-energy-production-2015_us_58104a39e4b001e247df4ac1?)
The Internet's Energy Usage
- "Keeping all this in mind, we selected what seems to be the most recent, complete, honest and transparant report of the internet's total footprint. It concludes that the global communications network consumed 1,815 TWh of electricity in 2012. This corresponds to 8% of global electricity production in the same year (22,740 TWh). "
- "These researchers estimate that by 2017, the electricity use of the internet will rise to between 2,547 TWh (expected growth scenario) and 3,422 TWh (worst case scenario). If the worst-case scenario materializes, internet-related energy use will almost double in just 5 years time. Note that further improvements in energy efficiency are already included in these results. Without advances in efficiency, the internet's energy use would double every two years, following the increase in data traffic."
- "Emerging trends in electricity consumption for consumer ICT", Peter Corcoran, 2013 
- "Key Electricity Trends" (PDF), IEA Statistics, 2015 
- Of the total, 852 TWh was consumed by end-use devices, 352 TWh by networks, 281 TWh by data centers, and 330 TWh during the manufacturing stage.
- Tom Raftery on the Smart Grid and Electricity 2.0: well done, comprehensive, introduction
- Understand the genius ofthe Cap and Share proposal through this five minute video introduction
- Great and crucial introduction to Peak Oil dynamics: What You Should Know About Peak Oil and Resource Depletion
Open Source Energy Projects
- Absorber Roof:low cost solar absorbing roofing material, details in the public domain
- Build-It-Solar - Plans and tools and information to do renewable energy and conservation projects.
- Canuckle: designed to be the LEGO of alternative energy. The first project is a highly accurate solar tracker
- Concentrated Solar Power Open Source Initiative ; (CSPOSI) - Project Archimedes: hybrid thermal solar collector for distributed power generation and water purification; Software and electronics hardware for concentrated solar power under GNU General Public License 
- Gasifier Experimenter Kit: biomass gasifiers that are ready for everyday use, to serve distributed energy needs.
- Open Source Arduino Sun, see Heliostat Projects
- SHPEGS Open Energy Project (Solar Heat Pump Electrical Generation System): open concept for a renewable base load power station for moderate climates, based on solar and geothermal heat 
- Solar Flower: an open source solar energy collector which can be made very easily from common recycled and salvaged materials 
- SolaRoof, open design of solar energy for households
- Quantum Energy Generator, based on Nikola Tesla's design
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Biofuel (17 P)
Pages in category "Energy"
The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 754 total.(previous page) (next page)
- Abundance and the Generative Logic of the Commons
- Abundance Generation
- Abundance of Food vs the Abundance of Recipes
- Abundant Energy Revolution
- Active Distribution Networks
- Affordable DIY Solar and Wind
- Aggregate Energy Efficiency
- Aizu Power Cooperative in Fukushima
- Alex Steffen on Distributed Disaster Relief and P2P Energy Networks
- ALL Power Labs
- Alternative Energy Matrix
- Amory Lovins and Robert Rosner on Nuclear and Carbon
- Amory Lovins on Climate change, Peak Oil and Energy Autonomy
- Antje Tönnis
- Art and Energy
- Arthur Berman on the Magical Thinking on Fracking
- Asset Germination Event
- Attuning to Natural Energy Flows vs. Abstract Economic Rationality
- Austria's Solar Self-Build Movement
- Barcelona Environmental Ordinance
- Barcelona's Solar Thermal Ordinance
- Behind the Meter Community Energy Projects
- Berlin Energy Roundtable
- Beyond Utility 2.0 to Energy Democracy
- Bibliography on Distributed Energy Policy
- Bill St Arnaud
- Bio-Physical Triggers of Political Violence
- Biodigesters in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Biophysical Economic Theory
- Bitcoin Mining and its Energy Footprint
- BitTorrent Proxy for Green Internet File Sharing
- Blake Jones of Namaste Solar on Democratic Energy Cooperatives
- Bottom-Up Energy Transition
- Brighton Energy Co-op
- Brooklyn Microgrid
- Buerger Energie Berlin
- Build It Solar
- Can Economic Growth Last
- Can Micropower Become as Deep a Game-Changer as Microprocessing
- Can Renewable Energy Sustain Consumer Societies
- Cap and Reward
- Cape Light Compact
- Carbon Bubble
- Carbon Co-op
- Carbon Reduction Rewards
- Carbon Removal Market
- Carbon-Free and Nuclear-Free
- Case against Nuclear Energy and for Renewables
- Case Studies of Community Energy
- Cecile Blanchet on Energy as a Commons and Remunicipalization in Germany
- Centro de Doc e Info Bolivia/es
- Charter of REScoop
- Chris Paine on Who Killed the Electric Car
- Citizen-funded Wind Turbines
- Citizens Own Renewable Energy Network Australia
- Civil Society in Sustainable Energy Transitions
- Clean Economy Network
- Clean Tech Nation
- Climate Farmers
- Co-op Power
- COGEN Europe
- Collaboration between Local Authorities and Renewable Energy Cooperatives
- Collective Power
- Combined Heat Power
- Commons-Based Cases in Alternative Energy
- Commons-Based Renewable Energy in the Age of Climate Collapse
- Community and Cooperative Renewable Energy Powershifts
- Community Charter
- Community Choice Aggregation
- Community Choice Energy
- Community Choice Energy Aggregation
- Community Choice Energy Model
- Community Energy
- Community Energy Coalition
- Community Energy England
- Community Energy in Germany
- Community Energy in the UK
- Community Energy Investment Web Sites
- Community Energy Management Software
- Community Energy Pioneers in Finland
- Community Energy Practitioners Forum - UK
- Community Energy Scotland
- Community Energy Strategy
- Community Geothermal
- Community Geothermal Energy
- Community Heat Partnerships
- Community Innovation for Sustainable Energy
- Community Innovation in Sustainable Energy
- Community Micro-Financing for Solar Projects
- Community Power
- Community Renewable Energy
- Community Renewable Energy Webinar
- Community Shared Solar
- Community Shares Marketplace
- Community Solar Financial Model
- Community Solar Gardens
- Community Supported Energy
- Community Wind
- Community-Based Ethical Energy
- Community-Based Micro Grids
- Community-Led Hydro Initiatives
- Community-Led Wind Power
- Community-Owned Energy Retailers
- Community-Owned Wind Power Projects
- Comparing Successful Grassroots Innovations in Solar Collectors and Wind Power
- Concentrated Solar Power Open Source Initiative
- Cooperativa La Fabbrica del Sole
- Cooperative Approaches to Energy, Water and Rail
- Cooperative Strategy for Distributed Renewable Energy
- Cooperatively Owned Wind Turbines in Denmark
- Correcting Negative Myths about Renewable Energy
- Crash on Demand
- Critical Approach towards the Energy Commons
- Crowdfunded Solar
- Crowdsourcing to Find Nuclear Hotspots with Safecast Japan
- Cryptocurrencies Linked to Renewable Energy
- Danish Promotion of Renewable Energy Act of 2008
- Dave Grundy on Free Home Energy Audits in Vermont
- David Fridley and Richard Heinberg on a Renewable Future with One Hundred Percent Clean Energy
- David Holmgren on Holistic Approaches to Food Production during Energy Descent
- David Korowicz on the Peak Oil Tipping Point and its Economic Effects
- David MacBryde
- Decarbonizing Bitcoin and Choices for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Blockchain Technologies
- Decentralized Energy
- Decentralized Renewable Energy
- Decline of EROI Directly Impacts on Economic Prosperity
- Degrowth and the Supply of Money in an Energy-Scarce World
- Demand-Side Reduction Cooperatives
- Denmark's Distribured Natural Grid Policy and Infrastructure
- Digital Ultra-Decentralization and the End of Data Centers
- Distributed Energy Financing
- Distributed Energy Infrastructures in Nepal Based on Small-Scale Hydropower Technologies
- Distributed Energy Metering Considered as a Commons
- Distributed Generation Systems
- Distributed Generation with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources
- Distributed Natural Grid
- Distributed Networks of Solar Power on Residential Houses Coordinated as Commons
- Distributed Power Generation
- Distributed Renewable Energy
- Distributed Solar
- Distributed Wind Energy
- Distributed Wind Power
- DIY Self-Replicable Solar Forge
- DIY Wind Turbines for Decentralized Power Supply
- Do's and Dont's of Crowdfunding for Social Good
- Dominic Muren on the Ecological Advantages of Open Hardware Manufacturing
- Dominican Light Project
- Donation-Based Energy Crowdfunding
- DURGA Energy
- Earthworker Cooperative - Australia
- Eco-Patent Commons
- Economic Growth Remains Ultimately Dependent on Growth in Material and Energy Use
- Electric Carsharing
- Electric Consumer Bill of Rights
- Electricity-Backed Currency Proposal
- Electrizitatswerke Schonau
- Embodied Energy of Digital Technology
- Emergy Theory
- Emissions Reduction Currency System
- Energise Barnet
- Energy (NORA)
- Energy Accounting
- Energy and Equity
- Energy and Experience
- Energy and Heat Pooling
- Energy and the Wealth of Nations
- Energy as a Common
- Energy as a Common Good
- Energy as a Commons
- Energy as a Measure for the Rise and Fall of Civilizations
- Energy as a Service
- Energy as a Strategic Sector of the Economy and Blood Flow of the Production System
- Energy Autonomy
- Energy Backed Crypto-Currencies
- Energy Cafés
- Energy Cities
- Energy Coin
- Energy Collective
- Energy Collective Project