Difference between revisions of "Category:Cooperation"

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New section dedicated to the p2p-oriented practices of cooperation and collaboration.
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Section dedicated to the p2p-oriented practices of cooperation and collaboration.
  
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'''A word of caution:''' you have to be familiar with the limitations of the cooperative model in a capitalist society, formulated as [[Oppenheimer’s Law of Transformation]]: cooperatives are a short-term means of survival, but tend towards capitalist privatization in the longer term Oppenheimer clearly formulated the prospect that as long as the macro-economic accounting system is governed by private capital calculation, no communal settlement can survive without adapting this economic model. Our own proposal for [[Open Cooperatives]] is meant as a pragmatic antidote to this deeper tendency, it recommends making 'commons creation' a legal and structural obligation for cooperatives, so that they produce common goods even as they veer towards adaptation.
  
=Key Articles=
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 +
=Quotes=
 +
 
 +
==The virtuous cycle of collaboration==
 +
 
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"Scarcity is primarily a mindset and lack of collaboration not a biophysical reality! Competition creates scarcity, which in turn is used to justify competitive behaviour (a vicious circle). The natural limits of bioproductivity and healthy ecosystems functions don’t create scarcity as such. Collaboration can turn these natural planetary limits into enabling constraints to create abundance for all within healthy ecosystems and a healthy biosphere. Collaboration creates shared abundance, which in turn invites more collaboration (a virtuous circle)."
 +
 
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- Daniel Christian Wahl [https://blog.usejournal.com/redesigning-economics-based-on-ecology-35a82f751f25]
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 +
 
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==What is [[Free Cooperation]] ?==
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"There are three aspects that have to be taken into account if you want to build a free cooperation. The first is that all rules in this cooperation can be questioned by everybody, there are no holy rules that people cannot question or reject or bargain and negotiate about – which is not the case in most of the cooperations and organizational forms that we know.
 +
 
 +
And the second aspect that has to be guaranteed for free cooperation is that people can question and change these rules by using this primary material force of refusing to cooperate, by restricting their cooperation, by holding back what they do for these cooperations, making conditions under which they are willing to cooperate, or leaving cooperations. They must be guaranteed the right to use these measures to influence the rules and that everybody in the cooperation can do this.
 +
 
 +
And the third aspect – which is important because otherwise it would be just a blackmailing of the less powerful ones by the more powerful ones – is that the price of not cooperating, the price that it costs if you restrict your cooperation or if the cooperation splits up, should be …not exactly equal …but similar for all participants in this cooperation, and it should be affordable. That means, it can be done, it’s not impossible, it’s not a question of sheer existence to cooperate in this way.
 +
 
 +
So, if these three conditions are guaranteed, a cooperation is free or can be free, because everybody can question and change the rules, can negotiate about the rules by using his or her power to restrict what he or she puts into this cooperation, or by splitting up and searching another way to cooperate with other people and other groups. And the idea is to say that this third aspect, the price, which is not money necessarily, the price that it costs to split up or to restrict cooperation – to make this price equal and possible for all participants, that’s the core business of leftist policy, that’s the real core business, that’s what leftist policy does, it adjusts rules in a way that people have the same power to influence rules because the price that it costs them if there is a split or if they restrict their engagement is the same for everybody."
 +
 
 +
- Christoph Spehr [https://transversal.at/transversal/0805/spehr/en?]
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 +
=Key Resources=
 +
 
 +
==Key Articles==
  
 
* [[Free Cooperation]]. Christopher Spehr.
 
* [[Free Cooperation]]. Christopher Spehr.
 
* [[Wikipedia and the Politics of Mass Collaboration]]. Nathaniel Tkacz, The University of Melbourne, Australia . A critique of the non-political interpretations of cooperation. [http://journals.culture-communication.unimelb.edu.au/platform/resources/includes/vol2_2/PlatformVol2Issue2_Tkacz.pdf]
 
* [[Wikipedia and the Politics of Mass Collaboration]]. Nathaniel Tkacz, The University of Melbourne, Australia . A critique of the non-political interpretations of cooperation. [http://journals.culture-communication.unimelb.edu.au/platform/resources/includes/vol2_2/PlatformVol2Issue2_Tkacz.pdf]
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* An [[Evolutionary Theory of Resource Distribution]]. By Blair Fix. real-world economics review, issue no. 90 [http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue90/whole90.pdf]
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''On the tension between two levels of natural selection: 1) At the group level, selfless behavior is advantageous 2) But at the individual level, selfish behavior is advantageous''
  
  
Compiled by via Jennifer Sertl:
+
===Compiled by via Jennifer Sertl:===
  
 
#Synthetic Overview of Collaborative Economy http://p2p.coop/files/reports/collaborative-economy-2012.pdf by Michel Bauwens & P2P Foundation
 
#Synthetic Overview of Collaborative Economy http://p2p.coop/files/reports/collaborative-economy-2012.pdf by Michel Bauwens & P2P Foundation
Line 19: Line 47:
 
#Synthesis in Collaborative Flow http://collaborationdna.com/2012/11/09/synthesis-cdna16p/ … by @sournce pov via @collabdna  
 
#Synthesis in Collaborative Flow http://collaborationdna.com/2012/11/09/synthesis-cdna16p/ … by @sournce pov via @collabdna  
 
#Interprofessional Collaborative Practice http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/ipecreport.pdf …
 
#Interprofessional Collaborative Practice http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/ipecreport.pdf …
#What Collaborative Leaders Knowhttp://seapointcenter.com/what-collaborative-leader-know/
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#What Collaborative Leaders Know http://seapointcenter.com/what-collaborative-leader-know/
 +
 
 +
==Key Books==
 +
 
 +
* Blueprint: The [[Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society]]. by Nicholas A. Christakis.
  
=Key Books=
+
Three key books recommended by David Bollier:
 +
 
 +
*Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, "A Cooperative Species:  Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution" Princeton U. Press, 2011: evolutionary science, complexity theory and high-level scientific scholarship on the topic
 +
 
 +
* Martin A. Nowak, "Super Cooperators:  Altruism, Evolution and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed". Free Press, 2011: Nowak is a mathematical biologist  and evolutionary scientist.  Very readable book.
 +
 
 +
* Yochai Benkler, "The Penguin and the Leviathan:  [[How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest]]"
 +
Benkler's popular overview of the literature on cooperation
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''See also:'''
  
* Yochai Benkler: [[How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest]]
 
 
* Richard Sennett. Together: The [[Rituals, Pleasures, and Politics of Cooperation]]. Yale University Press, 2012.
 
* Richard Sennett. Together: The [[Rituals, Pleasures, and Politics of Cooperation]]. Yale University Press, 2012.
 +
* Gintis, Herbert, Samuel Bowles, et al., Moral Sentiments and Material Interests:  The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life (MIT Press, 2005).
 +
*Hyde, Lewis, The [[Gift]]:  Imagination and the Erotic Life of Property (Vintage Books, 1979).
 +
* Kropotkin, Peter, [[Mutual Aid]]:  A Factor of Evolution (Boston:  Porter Sargent Publishers/ Extending Horizons Books, reprint of 1914 edition).
 +
*Linn, Karl, Building Commons and Community (Oakland, California:  New Village Press, 2007).
 +
 +
==Key Practices==
 +
 +
(Neo)Traditional Gifting/Sharing/Cooperative Practices:
 +
 +
 +
Via [[Co-Creative Recipes]]:
 +
 +
#[[Ayni]]:  a term with a meaning that’s closely related to minga. It describes a system of work and family reciprocity among members
 +
#[[Bayanihan]]: in the Philippines,'communal unity'
 +
#[[Córima]]: The Rarámuri people of Mexico’s Chihuahua mountains use the word “córima” to describe an act of solidarity with someone who’s having trouble.
 +
#[[Gadugi]]:  a term used in the Cherokee language which means “working together” or “cooperative labor” within a community
 +
#[[Gotong-Royong]]: in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, Gotong-royong is a cooperation among many people to attain a shared goal with ideas of reciprocity or mutual aid.
 +
#[[Guelaguetza]]:  a cross between a potlatch and a tequio. The term describes “a reciprocal exchange of goods and services”.
 +
#[[Harambee]]: a Kenyan tradition of community self-help events, e.g. playdraising or development activities. Harambee literally means “all pull together” in Swahili
 +
#[[Imece]]:  a name given for a traditional Turkish village-scale collaboration.
 +
#[[Maloka]]:  (or maloka in Portuguese) is an indigenous communal house found in the indigenous Amazon region of Colombia and Brazil.
 +
#[[Meitheal]]: the Irish word for a work team, gang, or party and denotes the co-operative labour system in Ireland where groups of neighbours help each other in turn with farming work
 +
#[[Mutirão]]: This is originally a Tupi term used in Brazil to describe collective mobilizations based on non-remunerated mutual help.
 +
#[[Naffīr]]: an Arabic word used in parts of Sudan (including Kordofan, Darfur, parts of the Nuba mountains and Kassala) to describe particular types of communal work undertakings.
 +
#[[Tequio]]: a very popular type of work for collective benefit in the Zapotec culture. Community members contribute materials or labor to carry out construction work for the community.
  
=Key Videos=
+
==Key Videos==
  
 
* [[Yochai Benkler on How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest]]
 
* [[Yochai Benkler on How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest]]

Revision as of 04:23, 3 October 2020

Section dedicated to the p2p-oriented practices of cooperation and collaboration.

A word of caution: you have to be familiar with the limitations of the cooperative model in a capitalist society, formulated as Oppenheimer’s Law of Transformation: cooperatives are a short-term means of survival, but tend towards capitalist privatization in the longer term Oppenheimer clearly formulated the prospect that as long as the macro-economic accounting system is governed by private capital calculation, no communal settlement can survive without adapting this economic model. Our own proposal for Open Cooperatives is meant as a pragmatic antidote to this deeper tendency, it recommends making 'commons creation' a legal and structural obligation for cooperatives, so that they produce common goods even as they veer towards adaptation.


Quotes

The virtuous cycle of collaboration

"Scarcity is primarily a mindset and lack of collaboration not a biophysical reality! Competition creates scarcity, which in turn is used to justify competitive behaviour (a vicious circle). The natural limits of bioproductivity and healthy ecosystems functions don’t create scarcity as such. Collaboration can turn these natural planetary limits into enabling constraints to create abundance for all within healthy ecosystems and a healthy biosphere. Collaboration creates shared abundance, which in turn invites more collaboration (a virtuous circle)."

- Daniel Christian Wahl [1]


What is Free Cooperation ?

"There are three aspects that have to be taken into account if you want to build a free cooperation. The first is that all rules in this cooperation can be questioned by everybody, there are no holy rules that people cannot question or reject or bargain and negotiate about – which is not the case in most of the cooperations and organizational forms that we know.

And the second aspect that has to be guaranteed for free cooperation is that people can question and change these rules by using this primary material force of refusing to cooperate, by restricting their cooperation, by holding back what they do for these cooperations, making conditions under which they are willing to cooperate, or leaving cooperations. They must be guaranteed the right to use these measures to influence the rules and that everybody in the cooperation can do this.

And the third aspect – which is important because otherwise it would be just a blackmailing of the less powerful ones by the more powerful ones – is that the price of not cooperating, the price that it costs if you restrict your cooperation or if the cooperation splits up, should be …not exactly equal …but similar for all participants in this cooperation, and it should be affordable. That means, it can be done, it’s not impossible, it’s not a question of sheer existence to cooperate in this way.

So, if these three conditions are guaranteed, a cooperation is free or can be free, because everybody can question and change the rules, can negotiate about the rules by using his or her power to restrict what he or she puts into this cooperation, or by splitting up and searching another way to cooperate with other people and other groups. And the idea is to say that this third aspect, the price, which is not money necessarily, the price that it costs to split up or to restrict cooperation – to make this price equal and possible for all participants, that’s the core business of leftist policy, that’s the real core business, that’s what leftist policy does, it adjusts rules in a way that people have the same power to influence rules because the price that it costs them if there is a split or if they restrict their engagement is the same for everybody."

- Christoph Spehr [2]

Key Resources

Key Articles

On the tension between two levels of natural selection: 1) At the group level, selfless behavior is advantageous 2) But at the individual level, selfish behavior is advantageous


Compiled by via Jennifer Sertl:

  1. Synthetic Overview of Collaborative Economy http://p2p.coop/files/reports/collaborative-economy-2012.pdf by Michel Bauwens & P2P Foundation
  2. Six Ways to Empower Yourself With Others http://sourcesofinsight.com/the-people-factor-six-ways-to-empower-yourself-with-others Faisal Hoque
  3. Too Big To Know Where the Smartest Person in the Room is the Room http://m.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/01/to-know-but-not-understand-david-weinberger-on-science-and-big-data/250820/
  4. The Individuation of Ideas http://www.elephantjournal.com/2011/08/the-individuation-of-ideas-jennifer-sertl/
  5. Why we need each other http://soc.li/eBnY8Rj
  6. Lessons from Edison & Collaborative Innovation http://www.fastcompany.com/3002977/learning-edison-sarah-miller-caldicotts-new-book-explores-collaborative-innovation
  7. Future Work Skills 2020 http://www4.unescobkk.org/nespap/sites/default/files/SR-1382A%20UPRI%20future%20work%20skills_sm.pdf … via @iftf+1 virtual collaboration
  8. Synthesis in Collaborative Flow http://collaborationdna.com/2012/11/09/synthesis-cdna16p/ … by @sournce pov via @collabdna
  9. Interprofessional Collaborative Practice http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/ipecreport.pdf
  10. What Collaborative Leaders Know http://seapointcenter.com/what-collaborative-leader-know/

Key Books

Three key books recommended by David Bollier:

  • Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, "A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution" Princeton U. Press, 2011: evolutionary science, complexity theory and high-level scientific scholarship on the topic
  • Martin A. Nowak, "Super Cooperators: Altruism, Evolution and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed". Free Press, 2011: Nowak is a mathematical biologist and evolutionary scientist. Very readable book.

Benkler's popular overview of the literature on cooperation


See also:

  • Richard Sennett. Together: The Rituals, Pleasures, and Politics of Cooperation. Yale University Press, 2012.
  • Gintis, Herbert, Samuel Bowles, et al., Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life (MIT Press, 2005).
  • Hyde, Lewis, The Gift: Imagination and the Erotic Life of Property (Vintage Books, 1979).
  • Kropotkin, Peter, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (Boston: Porter Sargent Publishers/ Extending Horizons Books, reprint of 1914 edition).
  • Linn, Karl, Building Commons and Community (Oakland, California: New Village Press, 2007).

Key Practices

(Neo)Traditional Gifting/Sharing/Cooperative Practices:


Via Co-Creative Recipes:

  1. Ayni: a term with a meaning that’s closely related to minga. It describes a system of work and family reciprocity among members
  2. Bayanihan: in the Philippines,'communal unity'
  3. Córima: The Rarámuri people of Mexico’s Chihuahua mountains use the word “córima” to describe an act of solidarity with someone who’s having trouble.
  4. Gadugi: a term used in the Cherokee language which means “working together” or “cooperative labor” within a community
  5. Gotong-Royong: in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, Gotong-royong is a cooperation among many people to attain a shared goal with ideas of reciprocity or mutual aid.
  6. Guelaguetza: a cross between a potlatch and a tequio. The term describes “a reciprocal exchange of goods and services”.
  7. Harambee: a Kenyan tradition of community self-help events, e.g. playdraising or development activities. Harambee literally means “all pull together” in Swahili
  8. Imece: a name given for a traditional Turkish village-scale collaboration.
  9. Maloka: (or maloka in Portuguese) is an indigenous communal house found in the indigenous Amazon region of Colombia and Brazil.
  10. Meitheal: the Irish word for a work team, gang, or party and denotes the co-operative labour system in Ireland where groups of neighbours help each other in turn with farming work
  11. Mutirão: This is originally a Tupi term used in Brazil to describe collective mobilizations based on non-remunerated mutual help.
  12. Naffīr: an Arabic word used in parts of Sudan (including Kordofan, Darfur, parts of the Nuba mountains and Kassala) to describe particular types of communal work undertakings.
  13. Tequio: a very popular type of work for collective benefit in the Zapotec culture. Community members contribute materials or labor to carry out construction work for the community.

Key Videos


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