Binary Economics

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= In its economics aspect, binary economics is a market economics whose markets work for everybody. Furthermore, it upholds private property but private property for everybody



Rodney Shakespeare [1]:

"An alternative summary is – the use of central bank-issued interest-free loans, administered by the banking system, for the development and spreading of various forms of productive capacity (and the associated consuming capacity) thereby creating a balance of supply and demand and forwarding social and economic justice. A quick illustration of binary economics is the funding for a bridge, sewage works or hospital - the use of central bank-issued interest-free loans halves or more the cost. Two more illustrations are a halving or more of the usual cost of micro-credit for poor people; and the enabling of any individual in the population (from a baby to a retiree) to become a shareholder in one of the great corporations. The central bank is used as the source of the loans to emphasise that the money supply is not that of a mere private grouping (as is the case today) but is society’s money supply which (although administered by the banking system) can be interest-free for the purposes of an efficient, just economy."

Furthermore, binary economics addresses a number of weaknesses in the current economic system which are dismissed by conventional economics as being of no, or low, importance.

The weaknesses include:–

• Almost all of the modern money supply is in the form of interest-bearing debt created and owned by the banking system[12]

• The money supply is generally not directed at productive capacity[13]

• Forms of productive capital remain narrowly owned and there is no policy to spread the ownership of productive capacity throughout the population

• People do not have their own independent incomes

Binary economics redresses those weaknesses. In particular, the spreading of ownership enables the spreading of the associated incomes. Indeed, over time, on market principles, binary economics enables all individuals to obtain an independent income or binary competence. The competence (the word can be traced back to Jane Austen, Alexander Pope and William Shakespeare meaning property or means sufficient for the necessaries and conveniences of life; sufficiency without excess) is defined as:-

a capital estate large enough to supply sufficient current consumer income to support at least one half of an affluent life style (measured in the context of what society as a whole can efficiently produce)." (


Conventional economics compared with binary economics

Rodney Shakespeare:

A good understanding of binary economics can be obtained by contrasting various aspects with comparable aspects in conventional economics.

For example, conventional economics upholds the concept of productivity (generally labour productivity) while, in complete contrast, binary economics has the new concept of productiveness giving fair credit to the contributions of both labour and capital.

Then conventional economics believes that interest (as opposed to administration cost) is always necessary but binary economics, again in complete contrast, states that, certainly where the development and spreading of productive (and the associated consuming) capacity is concerned, interest (as opposed to administration cost) is not necessary.

The contrast continues. Thus conventional economics:-

• is largely unconcerned that the present money supply is generally not directed at productive capacity

• in practice engenders a continual inflation

• conceives of a self-centred homo economicus

• eschews ethics and belief in God

• ignores the imbalance in power relationships between people.

But binary economics views it as essential that:-

• the money supply be directed at the development and spreading of productive capacity

• the money supply be not inflationary, indeed, should be counter-inflationary

• recognition be made that humans are capable of going beyond self-interest

• ethics and belief in God be upheld

• account be taken of the imbalance in power relationships between people.

Very fundamentally, binary economics rejects the claim of conventional economics that it promotes a ‘free market’ which is free, fair and efficient. Binary economics states that the present ‘free market’ is unfree, unfair and inefficient not least because the ‘free market’ thinks it does not matter who owns productive capital and how it is distributed and does not worry if people do not have independent incomes.

In a quite remarkable way the two economics differ on the subject of democracy. Conventional economics upholds the periodic political vote (as in, for example, elections to government). Binary economics does the same but then deepens democracy by insisting that productive capital and the practical everyday power its ownership gives to individuals be widely distributed as well. In binary economics freedom is only truly achieved if all individuals are able to acquire an independent economic base. In short, binary economics upholds political democracy plus economic democracy.

Perhaps most importantly of all, conventional economics is generally heedless of (or at least, not directly involved with) environmental issues but, even if it does heed them, does not have the specific mechanisms to address the environment in a large-scale way. Indeed, conventional economics generally views environmental solutions as imposing an economic cost, and a large one at that. Binary economics, however, again in complete contrast, does have the mechanisms and its solutions do not impose economic cost.

Lastly, conventional economics claims that its mathematical equilibriums are a manifestation of a world-encompassing objective science expressing universal values. But binary economics denies that claim." (