"A consumer pays Price Above Cost whenever there is real or artificial rivalry.
Rivalry is 'real' when a product is scarce even after all effort has been toward increasing abundance.
Rivalry is 'artificial' when a product is scarce because of actions by owners to decrease abundance.
Artificial rivalry can be held in place when consumers do not know how to organize and own the Physical Sources of production themselves. A User Owned organization does not employ artificial rivalry unless they are acting against new users that are not yet owners - and in that case they are not a true User Owned company."
Related: Abundance vs. Scarcity