Multitudes 7 on the Impact of the Alterglobalisation Moment in Genua and New York's 9/11
* Special Issue: Multitude 7: "Apres Genes, Apres NY".
Michel Bauwens, 2003:
Article 1: Negri on Empire and Genua
Three Theses on Empire
- 1. Empire is still to be realized, as an alternative to imperialism - 2. Empire has replaced imperialism - 3. Empire can take the form of (American) imperialism
Negri distinguishes the three forms of monarchy, aristocracy, democracy
- Monarchy: "The three Romes: the military power of Washington, the financial power of New York, the culture power of Los Angeles" - Aristocracy: international finance and multinational corporations - Democracy: international institutions and NGO's
In the 'Byzantine' model hypothesis, the balance between these 3 forces disappears and the monarchy takes everything. Hence, there is no limitation to the appropriation of wealth and power by the elite.
Genua was the expression of the 'precarious class', all those young social and knowledge workers, who have uncertain presents and futures. There was a big religious presence but it was a religion of fraternity and solidarity, not compassion.
Article 2: Naomi Klein on No Logo
This book is about the struggle for 'symbolic power'. Paradoxically, brands give the consumer power of the producer, since, in order to preserve the trust, the latter must behave more 'ethically'. Since the heyday of the 1980s / 1990s , global brands are again losing out to localization.
Article 3: Paolo Virno on people vs the multitude
This was a core debate in the 16th cy. The concept of people converges to the idea of a 'general will' geared towards the formation of a (nation-) state, it is a 'centripetal' concept. The people converge towards the One, which is the state.
The concept of the multitude derives from the One, which is language, General Intellect, i.e. the generic faculties of the species. The multitude consists of individuated singularities (not per se also a people needing a state).
The pre-individual vs individuation: The individual consists of a pre-individual layer, consisting of:
- 1) biological perception - 2) intersubjective language - 3) means of production and general intellect - Sources: Simondon, Vygotsky, Marx)