Difference between revisions of "Help:Editing"

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(replaced the manual, copied from Citizendium, by7 the one already present in this wiki, and more or less copied from Wikipedia)
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This is a technical explanation of how to edit articles.
+
From: [http://meta.wikipedia.org/wiki/MediaWiki_User%27s_Guide:_Editing_overview Editing Overview].
  
==Procedure==
+
=== Sections, paragraphs, lists and lines ===
 +
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>What it looks like</th>
 +
<th>What you type</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>
 +
Start your sections with header lines:
  
This site is a [[Wiki]], which means that anyone (with a password) can easily edit any page and save those changes immediately to that page.
+
<!-- This is the original
 +
== New section ==
 +
=== Subsection ===
 +
==== Sub-subsection ====
 +
-->
  
Editing most pages is not very difficult. Simply click on the "'''edit'''" tab at the top of a page. This will bring you to a new page with a text box containing the editable text of the original page. You should write a short editorial summary of any changes you make in the small field below the edit-box. When you have finished, press the "'''show preview'''" button to see how your changes will look. You can also see the difference between the page with your edits and the previous version of the page by pressing the "show changes" button. If you're satisfied with what you see, press the "'''Save page'''" button. Your changes will immediately be visible to other users.
+
<!-- next set
 +
<h2> New section </h2>
 +
<h3> Subsection </h3>
 +
<h4> Sub-subsection </h4>
 +
-->
  
You can also click on the "'''Discussion'''" tab to see the corresponding "'''talk page'''", which contains comments about the page from other users. Edit the page in the same way as an article page.
+
<!-- This code prevents confusion in the section editing feature-->
 +
<b><font style="font-size:120%"> New section </font></b>
  
==Minor edits==
+
<b><font style="font-size:110%"> Subsection</font></b>
  
When editing an article page on this site, an editor can mark that edit as being "minor". Minor edits generally mean spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearrangement of text. It is possible to "hide" minor edits when viewing the "recent changes" link on the left side navigation bar. Marking a significant change as a minor edit is considered bad behavior, especially when it involves the deletion of some text. If you accidentally mark an edit as minor, you should edit the source once more, mark it major (or, rather, ensure that the check-box for "This is a minor edit" is not checked), and note that your previous edit was major in the new edit summary.
+
<b><font style="font-size:100%"> Sub-subsection</font></b>
  
==Wiki markup==
+
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>
  
The '''wiki markup''' is the syntax system (editing language) you can use to format a wiki page.
+
== New section ==
  
The [[Table (information)|table]] below is an extensive list of various edits users can make. The left column shows the effects available. The right column shows the wiki markup used to achieve them. Please note, though, that some of these edits can also be made using the formatting buttons at the top of any page's edit box.
+
=== Subsection ===
  
===Examples===
+
==== Sub-subsection ====
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
 
|-
 
| width=50% | What it looks like
 
| width=50% | What you type
 
|-valign="top"
 
|
 
Start sections of articles as follows:
 
 
 
<!--The following code messes up the table of contents
 
    and makes the section edit links much less useful,
 
    so please do not use it for this example.
 
==New section==
 
===Subsection===
 
====Sub-subsection====
 
-->
 
<!-- The following should look almost the same, using
 
    HTML headings markup instead of wiki headings.
 
    However, it messes up the section edit links,
 
    so please do not use it.
 
<h2>New section</h2>
 
<h3>Subsection</h3>
 
<h4>Sub-subsection</h4>
 
-->
 
<!-- The following just uses bolding and font changes,
 
    so it should be safe.  However, it might not
 
    look exactly right, especially when people
 
    use non-standard CSS stylesheets.
 
-->
 
<div style="font-size:150%;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.5em;padding-bottom:0.17em;">New section</div>
 
 
 
<div style="font-size:132%;font-weight:bold;padding-top:0.5em;padding-bottom:0.17em;">Subsection</div>
 
 
 
<div style="font-size:116%;font-weight:bold;padding-top:0.5em;padding-bottom:0.17em;">Sub-subsection</div>
 
 
 
* Start with a second-level heading (<tt><nowiki>==</nowiki></tt>); don't use first-level headings (=) (consider the article heading to be the first-level heading if you like).
 
* If possible, place subsections in an appropriate order. If listing countries, place them in alphabetical order rather than, say, relative to population of [[OECD]] countries or some random order.
 
* A [[#Placement_of_the_Table_of_Contents_.28TOC.29|Table of Contents]] will automatically be added to an article that has four or more sections.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
==New section==
 
===Subsection===
 
====Sub-subsection====
 
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
|- valign="top"
+
</td>
|
+
</tr>
A single [[newline]]
+
<tr>
generally has no effect on the layout.
+
<td>
 +
A single [[en:newline|newline]]
 +
has no effect on the layout.
 
These can be used to separate
 
These can be used to separate
 
sentences within a paragraph.
 
sentences within a paragraph.
 
Some editors find that this aids editing
 
Some editors find that this aids editing
and improves the function ''diff''  
+
and improves the ''diff'' function.
(used internally to compare
 
different versions of a page).
 
  
 
But an empty line
 
But an empty line
 
starts a new paragraph.
 
starts a new paragraph.
 
+
</td>
* When used in a list, a newline ''does'' affect the layout ([[#lists|see below]]).
+
<td>
|
+
<pre><nowiki>A single [[en:newline|newline]]
<pre><nowiki>
+
has no effect on the layout.
A single [[newline]]
 
generally has no effect on the layout.  
 
 
These can be used to separate
 
These can be used to separate
 
sentences within a paragraph.
 
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this aids editing
+
Some editors find that this  
and improves the function ''diff''  
+
aids editing and improves  
(used internally to compare
+
the ''diff'' function.
different versions of a page).
 
  
 
But an empty line
 
But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.
+
starts a new paragraph.</nowiki></pre>
</nowiki></pre>
+
</td>
|- valign="top"
+
</tr>
|
+
<tr valign="top"><td>You can break lines<br/>
You can break lines<br/>
+
without starting a new paragraph.</td>
without starting a new paragraph.
+
<td><pre><nowiki>You can break lines<br/>
 
+
without starting a new paragraph.</nowiki></pre>
* Please use this sparingly.
+
</td>
* Close markup between lines, do not start a [[Help:Link|link]] or ''italics'' or '''bold''' on one line and close it on the next.
+
</tr>
|
+
<tr>
<pre><nowiki>
+
<td>
You can break lines<br/>
+
* Lists are easy to do:
without starting a new paragraph.
+
** start every line with a star
</nowiki></pre>
+
*** more stars means deeper levels
|- id="lists" valign="top"
+
</td>
|
+
<td><pre><nowiki>* Lists are easy to do:
* It's easy to create a list:
+
** start every line with a star
** Start every line with a star ([[asterisk]]).
+
*** more stars means deeper levels
*** More stars means deeper levels.
 
**** A newline in a list
 
marks the end of a list item.
 
 
 
* An empty line starts a new list.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
* It's easy to create a list:
 
** Start every line with a star.
 
*** More stars means deeper levels.
 
**** A newline in a list
 
marks the end of a list item.
 
 
 
* An empty line starts a new list.
 
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
|- valign="top"
+
</td>
|
+
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>
 
# Numbered lists are also good
 
# Numbered lists are also good
 
## very organized
 
## very organized
 
## easy to follow
 
## easy to follow
### easier still
+
</td>
|
+
<td><pre><nowiki># Numbered lists are also good
<pre><nowiki>
 
# Numbered lists are also good
 
 
## very organized
 
## very organized
## easy to follow
+
## easy to follow</nowiki></pre>
### easier still
+
</td>
</nowiki></pre>
+
</tr>
|- valign="top" id="definition"
+
<tr>
|
+
<td>
; Definition list : list of definitions
+
* You can even do mixed lists
; item : the item's definition
 
; another item
 
: the other item's definition
 
 
 
* Begin with a semicolon.  One item per line; a newline can appear before the colon, but using a space before the colon improves parsing.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
; Definition list : list of definitions
 
; item : the item's definition
 
; another item
 
: the other item's definition
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
* You can even create mixed lists
 
 
*# and nest them
 
*# and nest them
 
*#* like this
 
*#* like this
*#*; can I mix definition list as well?
+
</td>
*#*: yes
+
<td><pre><nowiki>* You can even do mixed lists
*#*; how?
 
*#*: it's easy as
 
*#*:* a
 
*#*:* b
 
*#*:* c
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
* You can even create mixed lists
 
 
*# and nest them
 
*# and nest them
*#* like this
+
*#* like this</nowiki></pre>
*#*; can I mix definition list as well?
+
</td>
*#*: yes
+
</tr>
*#*; how?
+
<tr>
*#*: it's easy as
+
<td>
*#*:* a
+
; Definition list : list of definitions
*#*:* b
+
; item : the item's definition
*#*:* c
+
</td>
</nowiki></pre>
+
<td><pre><nowiki>; Definition list : list
|- valign="top"
+
of definitions
|
+
; item : the item's definition</nowiki></pre>
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
+
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>
 +
:A colon indents a line or paragraph.
 
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
 
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
 
+
* This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Talk pages|Talk page]]s.
* This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on [[Talk page|Talk page]]s.
+
</td>
|
+
<td><pre><nowiki>: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
<pre><nowiki>
 
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
 
 
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
 
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
|- valign=top
+
</td>
|
+
</tr>
When there is a need for separating a block of text
+
<tr valign=top>
<blockquote>
+
<td>
The '''blockquote''' command will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does. 
+
<pre><nowiki>IF a line starts with a space THEN
</blockquote>  
+
  it will be formatted exactly
This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text. 
+
    as typed;
|
+
  in a fixed-width font;
<pre><nowiki>
+
  lines won't wrap;
<blockquote>
+
ENDIF
The '''blockquote''' command will indent
+
this is useful for:
both margins when needed instead of the
+
  * pasting preformatted text;
left margin only as the colon does. 
+
  * algorithm descriptions;
</blockquote>
+
  * program source code
</nowiki></pre>
+
  * ASCII art;
|- valign=top
+
  * chemical structures;</nowiki></pre>
|
 
(See formula on right):
 
  
*This is useful for:
+
WARNING If you make it wide,
** pasting preformatted text;
+
you [[en:page widening|force the whole page to be wide]] and
** algorithm descriptions;
+
hence less readable. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.
** program source code;
+
</td>
** [[ASCII art]];
+
<td><pre><nowiki> IF a line starts with a space THEN
** chemical structures;
+
  it will be formatted exactly
* '''WARNING''': If you make it wide, you [[page widening|force the whole page to be wide]] and hence less readable, especially for people who use lower resolutions. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.
+
    as typed;
|
+
  in a fixed-width font;
<pre><nowiki>
+
  lines won't wrap;
IF a line starts with a space THEN
+
  ENDIF
    it will be formatted exactly
+
this is useful for:
        as typed;
+
  * pasting preformatted text;
    in a fixed-width font;
+
  * algorithm descriptions;
    lines will not wrap;
+
  * program source code
  END IF
+
  * ASCII art;
</nowiki></pre>
+
  * chemical structures;</nowiki></pre></td>
|- valign="top"
+
</tr>
|
+
<tr valign="top"><td><center>Centered text.</center>
<center>Centered text.</center>
+
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki><center>Centered text.</center></nowiki></pre>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>A [[en:horizontal dividing line|horizontal dividing line]]: above
 +
----
  
* Please note the American spelling of "center".
+
and below.
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<center>Centered text.</center>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
A [[horizontal dividing line]]:
 
this is above it
 
----
 
and this is below it.
 
  
* Mainly useful for  
+
Mainly useful for separating threads on Talk pages.
**disambiguation - but to be used sparsely, only when separating completely different, unrelated (groups of) meanings
+
</td>
**separating threads on Talk pages.
+
<td><pre><nowiki>A horizontal dividing line: above
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
A [[horizontal dividing line]]:
 
this is above it
 
 
----
 
----
and this is below it.
+
and below. </nowiki></pre>
</nowiki></pre>
+
</td>
|}
+
</tr>
 +
</table>
  
===Links and URLs===
+
=== Links, URLs ===
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
 
|- style="width=100%"
 
! What it looks like
 
! What you type
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
London has [[public transport]].
 
  
* A link to another site article.
+
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
* Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
+
<tr>
* Thus the link above is to the [[URL]] sitename.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the article with the name "Public transport". See also [[Canonicalization]].
+
<th>What it looks like</th>
|
+
<th>What you type</th>
<pre><nowiki>
+
</tr>
London has [[public transport]].
+
<tr valign="top"><td>Sue is reading the [[video policy]].
</nowiki></pre>
+
*First letter of target is automatically capitalized.
|- valign="top"
+
*Internally spaces are automatically represented as underscores (typing an underscore has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
|London also has
+
Thus the link above is to <nowiki>http://meta.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_policy</nowiki>, which is the page with the name "Video policy".
[[public transport|
+
</td>
public transportation]].
+
<td><pre><nowiki>Sue is reading the [[video policy]].</nowiki></pre>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr><td>
 +
Link to a section on a page, e.g.
 +
[[List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco]] (links to non-existent sections aren't really broken, they are treated as links to the page, i.e. to the top)</td><td>
 +
<pre><nowiki>[[List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco]].</nowiki></pre></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr valign="top"><td>Same target, different name: [[User:Larry Sanger|answers]].
  
* Same target, different name.
+
(This is called a [[en:piped link|piped link]]).
* This is a [[piped link]].
+
</td>
* The "piped" text must be placed '''first''', then the text that will be displayed second.
+
<td><pre><nowiki>Same target, different name:
|
+
[[User:Larry Sanger|answers]]</nowiki></pre>
<pre><nowiki>
+
</td>
London also has
+
</tr>
[[public transport|
+
<tr valign="top">
public transportation]].
+
<td>Endings are blended into the link: [[test]]ing, [[gene]]s
</nowiki></pre>
+
</td>
|- valign="top"
+
<td>
|
+
<pre><nowiki>Endings are blended
London also has
+
into the link: [[test]]ing, [[gene]]s</nowiki></pre>
[[public transport]]ation.
+
</td>
 
+
</tr>
Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s
+
<tr valign="top">
and [[streetcar]]s.
+
<td>
 
+
Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: [[kingdom (biology)|kingdom]].
* Endings are blended into the link.
+
<p>Automatically hide namespace: [[Wikipedia:Village pump|Village pump]].
* Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
+
<p>The server fills in the part after the | when you save the page. Next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. A preview interprets the abbreviated form correctly, but does not expand it yet in the edit box. Press Save and again Edit, and you will see the expanded version. The same applies for the following feature.
* Blending can be suppressed by using <nowiki><nowiki></nowiki></nowiki> tags, which may be desirable in some instances.  Example: a [[micro]]<nowiki>second</nowiki>.
+
</td>
|
+
<td>
<pre><nowiki>
+
<pre><nowiki>Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
London also has
+
[[kingdom (biology)|]]. </nowiki></pre>
[[public transport]]ation.
+
<pre><nowiki>Automatically hide namespace:
 
+
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].</nowiki></pre>
Examples include [[bus]]es,
+
</td></tr>
[[taxicab]]s, and [[streetcar]]s.
+
<tr>
 
+
<td>When adding a comment to a Talk page,
[[micro]]<nowiki>second</nowiki>
+
you should sign it. You can do this by
</nowiki></pre>
+
adding three tildes for your user name:
|- valign="top"
+
: [[User:Karl Wick|Karl Wick]]
|
+
or four for user name plus date/time:
See the [[Manual of Style]].
+
: [[User:Karl Wick|Karl Wick]] 08:10 Oct 5, 2002 (UTC)
 
+
</td>
* A link to another [[Help:namespace|namespace]].
+
<td><pre><nowiki>When adding a comment to a Talk page,
|
+
you should sign it. You can do this by
<pre><nowiki>
+
adding three tildes for your user name:
See the  
 
[[Manual of Style]].
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- id="link-to-section" valign="top"
 
|
 
[[Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.
 
 
 
[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page.
 
 
 
[[#example]] is a link to an anchor that was created using <div id="example">an id attribute</div>
 
 
 
* The part after the number sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation.  Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the top of the page.
 
* Identifiers may be created by attaching an <code>id="..."></code> attribute to almost any HTML element. This doesn't work with legacy browsers.
 
* Include "| Link title" to create a stylish link-title.
 
 
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
[[Manual of Style#Italics]]
 
is a link to a section within another
 
page.
 
 
 
[[#Links and URLs]] is a link
 
to another section on the
 
current page.
 
 
 
[[#example]] is a link to an
 
anchor that was created
 
using
 
<div id="example">an id
 
attribute
 
</div>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
 
[[kingdom (biology)|kingdom]].
 
 
 
Automatically hide namespace:
 
[[Village Pump|Village Pump]].  
 
 
 
Or both:
 
[[Manual of Style (headings)|Manual of Style]]
 
 
 
But not:
 
[[Manual of Style#Links|]]
 
 
 
* The server fills in the part after the pipe character (|) when you save the page. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When [[Show preview|preview]]ing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press '''Save''' and '''Edit''' again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page ([[#link-to-section|see previous entry]]).
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
Automatically hide stuff
 
in parentheses:
 
[[kingdom (biology)|]].
 
 
 
Automatically hide namespace:
 
[[Village Pump|]].
 
 
 
Or both:
 
[[Manual of Style (headings)|]]
 
 
 
But not:
 
[[Manual of Style#Links|]]
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
See [[Pipe trick]] for details.
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
 
 
[[National Sarcasm Society]] is a page
 
that does not exist yet.
 
 
 
* You can create it by clicking on the link.
 
* To create a new page:
 
*# Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
 
*# Save that page.
 
*# Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
 
* For more information, see [[How to start a page|How to start a page]] and check out [[Naming conventions|naming conventions]].
 
* Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
[[National Sarcasm Society]]
 
is a page
 
that does not exist yet.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
[[How to edit a page]]
 
is this page.
 
 
 
* [[Self link]]s appear as bold text when the article is viewed.
 
* Do not use this technique to make the article name bold in the first paragraph; see the [[Manual of Style#Article titles|Manual of Style]].
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
[[How to edit a page]]
 
is this page.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
 
you should sign it by adding
 
three tildes to add your user name:
 
: [[User:Brockert|Ben Brockert]]
 
or four to add user name plus date/time:
 
: [[User:Brockert|Ben Brockert]] 00:18, Nov 19, 2004 (UTC)
 
Five tildes gives the date/time alone:
 
: 00:18, Nov 19, 2004 (UTC)
 
 
 
* The first two both provide a link to your [[user page|user page]].
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
When adding a comment
 
to a Talk page,you should  
 
sign it by adding three tildes
 
to add your user name:
 
 
: ~~~
 
: ~~~
or four for user name plus  
+
or four for user name plus date/time:
date/time:
+
: ~~~~</nowiki></pre>
: ~~~~
+
</td>
Five tildes gives the date/time
+
</tr>
alone:
+
<tr valign="top"><td>[[The weather in London]] is a page that doesn't
: ~~~~~
+
exist yet.
</nowiki></pre>
+
*You can create it by clicking on the link.
|- valign="top"
+
*To create a new page:
|
+
*#Create a link to it on some other page.
* [[Redirect|Redirect]] one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the ''first'' line of the article (such as at a page titled "[[USA]]").
+
*#Save that page.
* Note that, while it is possible to link to a section, it is not possible to redirect to a section. For example, "<nowiki>#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]</nowiki>" will redirect to the [[United States]] page, but not to any particular section on it. This feature may be implemented in the future - see [[MediaZilla:218|feature request 218]] (it appears as a bug).
+
*#Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
|
+
*Have a look at [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Starting a new page|how to start a page]] guide and the naming conventions page for your project.
<pre><nowiki>
+
</td>
#REDIRECT [[United States]]
+
<td><pre><nowiki>[[The weather in London]] is a page
</nowiki></pre>
+
that doesn't exist yet.</nowiki></pre>
|- valign="top"
+
</td>
|
+
</tr>
 
+
<tr valign="top"><td>
* Link to a page on the same subject in another language by using a link of the form: <nowiki>[[language code:Title]]</nowiki>.
+
[[MediaWiki User's Guide: Using redirects|Redirect]] one article title to another by putting text like this in its first line.
* It does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.
+
</td>
* Please see [[Interlanguage links]] and the [[Complete list of language wikis available|list of languages and codes]].
+
<td><pre><nowiki>#REDIRECT [[United States]]</nowiki></pre>
|
+
</td>
<pre><nowiki>
+
</tr>
[[fr:Wikipédia:Aide]]
+
<tr valign="top"><td>
</nowiki></pre>
+
A link to the page on the same subject in another language or, more generally, to a page on another wiki:
|- valign="top"
+
[[fr:Wikipédia:Aide]].  
|
+
For more info see [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Interwiki linking]].
'''What links here''' and '''Related changes'''
+
</td>
pages can be linked as:
+
<td><pre><nowiki>[[fr:Wikipédia:Aide]], [[:fr:Wikipédia:Aide]]</nowiki></pre></td>
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/How to edit a page]]
+
</tr>
and
+
<tr>
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/How to edit a page]]
+
<td>"What links here" and "Related changes" can be linked as:<br/>
 
+
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/Wikipedia:How to edit a page]] and
|
+
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
<pre><nowiki>
+
</td>
'''What links here''' and
+
<td><pre><nowiki>
'''Related changes'''
+
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/
pages can be linked as:
+
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]] and
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/How to edit a page]]
+
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/
and
+
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]</nowiki></pre>
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/How to edit a page]]
+
</td>
</nowiki></pre>
+
</tr>
|- valign="top"
+
<tr valign="top"><td>External link: [http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]
|
+
</td>
A user's '''Contributions''' page can be linked as:
+
<td><pre><nowiki>External link:
[[Special:Contributions/UserName]]
+
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]</nowiki></pre>
or
+
</td>
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]
+
</tr>
|
+
<tr valign="top"><td>Or just give the URL: http://www.nupedia.com.
<pre><nowiki>
+
*In the [[en:URL|URL]] all symbols must be among: A-Z a-z 0-9 ._\/~%-+&amp;#?!=()@ \x80-\xFF. If a URL contains a different character it should be converted; for example, ^ has to be written %5E (to be looked up in [[en:ASCII|ASCII]]). A blank space can also be converted into an underscore.
A user's '''Contributions''' page
+
</td>
can be linked as:
+
<td><pre><nowiki>Or just give the URL:
[[Special:Contributions/UserName]]
+
http://www.nupedia.com.</nowiki></pre>
or
+
</td>
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]
+
</tr>
</nowiki></pre>
+
<tr>
 
+
<td>
|- id="link-external" valign="top"
+
To link to books, you can use [[en:ISBN|ISBN]] links.
|
+
ISBN 0123456789X See [[MediaWiki User's Guide: ISBN links]]
Three ways to link to external (non-wiki) sources:
+
</td>
# Bare URL: http://www.nupedia.com/ (bad style)
+
<td>
# Unnamed link: [http://www.nupedia.com/] (only used within article body for footnotes)
+
<pre><nowiki>ISBN 0123456789X</nowiki></pre>
# Named link: [http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]
+
</td>
 
+
<tr>
* Square brackets indicate an external link. Note the use of a ''space'' (not a pipe) to separate the URL from the link text in the "named" version.
+
<td>
* In the [[URL]], all symbols must be among:<br/>'''A-Z a-z 0-9 . _ \ / ~ % - + &amp; # ? ! = ( ) @'''
+
To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link.
* If a URL contains a character not in this list, it should be encoded by using a percent sign (%) followed by the [[hexadecimal|hex]] code of the character, which can be found in the table of [[ASCII#ASCII printable characters|ASCII printable characters]]. For example, the caret character (^) would be encoded in a URL as '''%5E'''.
+
<br/>[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]
* If the "named" version contains a closing square bracket "]", then you must use the [[HTML]] special character syntax, i.e. '''&amp;#93;''' otherwise the [[MediaWiki]] software will prematurely interpret this as the end of the external link.
+
</td>
* There is a class that can be used to remove the arrow image from the external link. It is used in [[Template:Ref]] to stop the URL from expanding during printing. It should '''never''' be used in the main body of an article. However, there is an exception: wikilinks in Image markup. An example of the markup is as follows:
+
<td>
** Markup: <nowiki><span
+
<pre>
class="plainlinksneverexpand">
+
<nowiki>
[http://www.sysinternals.com/
 
ntw2k/freeware/winobj.shtml WinObj]</span></nowiki>
 
** Display: <span class="plainlinksneverexpand"> [http://www.sysinternals.com/ntw2k/freeware/winobj.shtml WinObj]</span>
 
* See [[External links]] for style issues.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
Three ways to link to
 
external (non-wiki) sources:
 
# Bare URL:
 
http://www.nupedia.com/
 
(bad style)
 
# Unnamed link:
 
[http://www.nupedia.com/]
 
(only used within article
 
body for footnotes)
 
# Named link:
 
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
ISBN 012345678X
 
 
 
ISBN 0-12-345678-X
 
 
 
* Link to books using their [[ISBN|ISBN]]. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended.
 
* ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
ISBN 012345678X
 
 
 
ISBN 0-12-345678-X
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
Text mentioning RFC 4321 anywhere
 
 
 
* Link to [[Internet Engineering Task Force]] [[RFC]]s.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
Text mentioning RFC 4321
 
anywhere
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
|- valign=top
 
|
 
Date formats:
 
# [[July 20]], [[1969]]
 
# [[20 July]] [[1969]]
 
# [[1969]]-[[07-20]]
 
# [[1969-07-20]]
 
 
 
* Link dates in one of the above formats, so that everyone can set their own display order. If [[Special:Userlogin|logged in]], you can use [[Special:Preferences]] to change your own date display setting.
 
* All of the above dates will appear as "[[20 July|20 July]] [[1969|1969]]" if you set your date display preference to "15 January 2001", but as "[[20 July|July 20]], [[1969|1969]]" if you set it to "January 15, 2001", or as "[[1969|1969]]-[[July 20|07-20]]" if you set it to "2001-01-15".
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
Date formats:
 
# [[July 20]], [[1969]]
 
# [[20 July]] [[1969]]
 
# [[1969]]-[[07-20]]
 
# [[1969-07-20]]
 
 
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
Special [[WP:AO]] links like [[As of 2006|this year]]
 
needing future maintenance
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
Special [[WP:AO]] links
 
like [[As of 2006|this year]]
 
needing future maintenance
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]
 
 
 
*To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, [[#Images|see next section]].
 
 
 
Some uploaded sounds are listed at [[Sound]].
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
 
[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]
 
[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
|}
+
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr valign=top>
 +
<td>Use links for dates, so everyone can set their own display order. Use [[Special:Preferences]] to change your own date display setting.
 +
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>[[July 20]], [[1969]] , [[20 July]] [[1969]]
 +
and [[1969]]-[[07-20]]
 +
</nowiki></pre>will all appear as [[20 July]] [[1969]] if you set your date display preference to 1 January 2001.
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
</table>
  
===Images===
+
=== Images ===
Only images that have been uploaded to the wiki can be used. To upload images, use the [[Special:Upload|upload page]]. You can find the uploaded image on the [[Special:Imagelist|image list]].
 
  
'''NOTE: This site is currently not able to totally support all of the following coding for image resizing and such. It is believed that this support will become available in the coming weeks.'''
+
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
 
+
<tr>
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
+
<th>What it looks like</th>
|-
+
<th>What you type</th>
! What it looks like
+
</tr>
! What you type
+
<tr valign="top"><td>A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png|Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia]]
|- valign="top"
+
* Only images that have been uploaded to Wikibooks can be used. To upload images, use the [[Special:Upload|upload page]]. You can find the uploaded image on the [[Special:Imagelist|image list]]
|A picture:
+
</td>
[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg]]
+
<td><pre><nowiki>
|<pre>A picture:
+
A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png]]</nowiki></pre>
<nowiki>[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg]]</nowiki></pre>
+
or, with alternate text (''strongly'' encouraged) <!-- actually required in HTML4 -->
 
+
<pre><nowiki>[[Image:Wiki.png|Wikipedia
|- valign="top"
+
- The Free Encyclopedia]] </nowiki>
|With alternative text:
+
</pre>
[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|site logo]]
+
[[en:Web browser|Web browser]]s render alternate text when not displaying an image -- for example, when the image isn't loaded, or in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud. See [[en:Wikipedia:Alternate text for images|Alternate text for images]] for help on choosing alternate text.
|<pre>With alternative text:
+
</td>
<nowiki>[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|site key logo]]</nowiki></pre>
+
</tr>
* Alternative text, used when a mouse hovers over the image or when the image is not loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is '''strongly''' encouraged. See [[Alternate text for images|Alternate text for images]] for help on choosing it.
+
<tr>
 
+
<td>
|- valign="top"
+
Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: [[:Image:Wiki.png]]
|Floating to the right side of the page and with a caption:
+
</td>
[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|frame|P2P Encyclopedia]]<br clear=all>
+
<td><pre><nowiki>
|<pre>Floating to the right side of the page
+
[[:Image:Wiki.png]]
and with a caption:
 
<nowiki>[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|frame|P2P Encyclopedia]]</nowiki></pre>
 
* The '''frame''' tag automatically floats the image right.
 
* The caption is also used as alternate text.
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|Floating to the right side of the page ''without'' a caption:
 
[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|right|P2p Encyclopedia]]
 
|<pre>Floating to the right side of the page
 
''without'' a caption:
 
<nowiki>[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|right|P2P Encyclopedia]]</nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|A picture resized to 100 pixels...
 
[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|100 px|Site logo]]
 
|<pre>A picture resized to 100 pixels...
 
<nowiki>[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|100 px|Site key logo]]</nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|A picture resized to 100 pixels with a caption:
 
[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|thumb|100 px|Site logo]]
 
|<pre>A picture resized to 100 pixels with a caption:
 
<nowiki>[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|thumb|100 px|Site logo]]</nowiki></pre>
 
*'''Thumb''' tag must be used to resize a picture with a caption.
 
* The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|A picture resized to 100 pixels floating in the center with a caption:
 
[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|thumb|center|100 px|Site logo]]
 
|<pre>A picture resized to 100 pixels floating in the center with a caption:
 
<nowiki>[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|thumb|center|100 px|Site logo]]</nowiki></pre>
 
* Note that the location can be defined as being '''center''' or  left (not shown).
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|A failed attempt to resize to 100 pixels, float in the center with a caption using '''frame''':
 
[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|frame|center|100 px|Site logo]]
 
|<pre>A failed attempt to resize to 100 pixels, float in the center with a caption using '''frame''':
 
<nowiki>[[Image:Logo200gr.jpg|frame|center|100 px|Site logo]]</nowiki></pre>
 
* If '''frame''' is used to try and resize a picture with a caption it will displays the picture at its actual size (in this case 200px). Always use thumb.
 
* The help topic on [[Extended image syntax|Extended image syntax]] explains more options.
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|Linking directly to the description page of an image:
 
[[:Image:Logo200gr.jpg]]
 
|<pre>Linking directly to the description page
 
of an image:
 
<nowiki>[[:Image:Logo200gr.jpg]]</nowiki></pre>
 
* Clicking on an image displayed on a page
 
(such as any of the ones above)
 
also leads to the description page
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|Linking directly to an image without displaying it:
 
[[media:Logo200gr.jpg|Image of the site logo]]
 
|<pre>Linking directly to an image
 
without displaying it:
 
<nowiki>[[media:Logo200gr.jpg|Image of the site logo]]</nowiki></pre>
 
* To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|Using the div tag to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text):
 
|<pre><nowiki>Example:
 
<div style="display:inline;
 
width:220px; float:right;">
 
Place images here </div></nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
|- valign="top"
 
|Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers):
 
|<pre><nowiki>Example: {| align=right
 
|-
 
|
 
Place images here
 
|}
 
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
  
|}
+
<tr>
 
+
<td>
See the Guidelines [[Image use policy|image use policy]].
+
To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
 
+
<br/>[[media:Tornado.jpg|Image of a Tornado]]
For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the topic on [[Extended image syntax|Extended image syntax]].
+
</td>
 
+
<td>
===Character formatting===
+
<pre>
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
+
<nowiki>
|- valign="top"
+
[[media:Tornado.jpg|Image of a Tornado]]
! What it looks like
 
! What you type
 
|- id="emph" valign="top"
 
|
 
''Emphasized text''<br />'''Strong emphasis'''<br />'''''Even stronger emphasis'''''
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
''Emphasized text''
 
'''Strong emphasis'''
 
'''''Even stronger emphasis'''''
 
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
|- valign="top"
+
</td>
|
+
</tr>
A typewriter font for <tt>monospace text</tt>
 
or for computer code: <code>int main()</code>
 
  
* For semantic reasons, using <code>&lt;code&gt;</code> where applicable is preferable to using <code>&lt;tt&gt;</code>.
+
</table>
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
A typewriter font for <tt>monospace text</tt>
 
or for computer code: <code>int main()</code>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
 
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.
 
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
 
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
 
and <u>underline new material</u>.
 
  
You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
+
=== Character formatting ===
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
 
For backwards compatibility better combine this
 
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
 
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.
 
  
* When editing regular articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
+
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
* When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
+
<tr>
|
+
<th>What it looks like</th>
<pre><nowiki>
+
<th>What you type</th>
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
+
</tr>
 +
<tr valign="top"><td>
 +
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''', '''''very strongly'''''.
 +
*These are double and triple apostrophes, not double quotes.
 +
</td>
 +
<td>
 +
<pre><nowiki>''Emphasize'', '''strongly''',
 +
'''''very strongly'''''.</nowiki></pre>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr valign="top"><td>
 +
You can also write <i>italic</i> and <b>bold</b>
 +
if the desired effect is a specific font style
 +
rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulae:
 +
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b>
 +
*However, the difference between these two methods is not very important for graphical browsers, and many people choose to ignore it.
 +
</td>
 +
<td>
 +
<pre><nowiki>You can also write <i>italic</i>
 +
and <b>bold</b> if the desired effect is a
 +
specific font style rather than emphasis, as
 +
in mathematical formulas:
 +
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b></nowiki></pre><!-- that's not a mathematical formula, though -- sure it is, just because it's being applied to physics doesn't make it stop being mathematics -->
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr valign=top>
 +
<td>A typewriter font for <tt>technical terms</tt>.
 +
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>A typewriter font for
 +
<tt>technical terms</tt>.</nowiki></pre>
 +
</td><!-- tt is really 'teletype', not 'technical term' -->
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr valign=top>
 +
<td>You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
 +
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>You can use <small>small text</small>  
 +
for captions.</nowiki></pre>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr valign="top"><td>You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
 
and <u>underline new material</u>.
 
and <u>underline new material</u>.
 +
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
 +
and <u>underline new material</u>.</nowiki></pre>
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr valign="top">
 +
<td>
 +
'''Umlauts and accents:''' (See [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Creating special characters]])<br/>
 +
è é ê ë ì í<br/>
 +
<br/>
 +
&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; <br/>
 +
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; <br/>
 +
&Igrave; &Iacute;
 +
&Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve; <br/>
 +
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde;
 +
&Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave; <br/>
 +
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig;
 +
&agrave; &aacute; <br/>
 +
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig;
 +
&ccedil; <br/>
 +
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;<br/>
 +
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; <br/>
 +
&oelig; &otilde;
 +
&ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute; <br/>
 +
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;
 +
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>
  
You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
+
è é ê ë ì í
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
 
For backwards compatibility better combine this
 
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
 
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
'''Suppressing interpretation of markup:'''
 
<br/>
 
<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'') the [[FAQ]]</nowiki>
 
* Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
 
* Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
 
* Does not escape HTML character references.
 
* To escape HTML character references such as <tt>&amp;rarr;</tt> use <tt>&amp;amp;rarr;</tt>
 
|
 
<br/>
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
&lt;nowiki>Link &amp;rarr; (''to'')
 
the [[FAQ]]&lt;/nowiki>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
'''Commenting page source:'''
 
<br/>
 
''not shown when viewing page''
 
* Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
 
* Note that most comments should go on the appropriate [[Talk page|Talk page]].
 
|
 
<br/>
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
&lt;!-- comment here -->
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
'''<span id="diacritics">Diacritical marks:</span>'''
 
<br/>
 
À Á Â Ã Ä Å <br/>
 
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë <br/>
 
Ì Í
 
Î Ï Ñ Ò <br/>
 
Ó Ô Õ
 
Ö Ø Ù <br/>
 
Ú Û Ü ß
 
à á <br/>
 
â ã ä å æ
 
ç <br/>
 
è é ê ë ì í<br/>
 
î ï ñ ò ó ô <br/>
 
&oelig; õ
 
ö ø ù ú <br/>
 
û ü ÿ
 
  
* See [[meta:Help:Special characters|special characters]].
+
&amp;Agrave; &amp;Aacute; &amp;Acirc; &amp;Atilde; &amp;Auml; &amp;Aring;
|
+
&amp;AElig; &amp;Ccedil; &amp;Egrave; &amp;Eacute; &amp;Ecirc; &amp;Euml;
<br/>
+
&amp;Igrave; &amp;Iacute; &amp;Icirc; &amp;Iuml; &amp;Ntilde; &amp;Ograve;
<pre><nowiki>
+
&amp;Oacute; &amp;Ocirc; &amp;Otilde; &amp;Ouml; &amp;Oslash; &amp;Ugrave;
&amp;Agrave; &amp;Aacute; &amp;Acirc; &amp;Atilde; &amp;Auml; &amp;Aring;  
+
&amp;Uacute; &amp;Ucirc; &amp;Uuml; &amp;szlig; &amp;agrave; &amp;aacute;
&amp;AElig; &amp;Ccedil; &amp;Egrave; &amp;Eacute; &amp;Ecirc; &amp;Euml;  
+
&amp;acirc; &amp;atilde; &amp;auml; &amp;aring; &amp;aelig; &amp;ccedil;
&amp;Igrave; &amp;Iacute; &amp;Icirc; &amp;Iuml; &amp;Ntilde; &amp;Ograve;  
 
&amp;Oacute; &amp;Ocirc; &amp;Otilde; &amp;Ouml; &amp;Oslash; &amp;Ugrave;  
 
&amp;Uacute; &amp;Ucirc; &amp;Uuml; &amp;szlig; &amp;agrave; &amp;aacute;  
 
&amp;acirc; &amp;atilde; &amp;auml; &amp;aring; &amp;aelig; &amp;ccedil;  
 
 
&amp;egrave; &amp;eacute; &amp;ecirc; &amp;euml; &amp;igrave; &amp;iacute;
 
&amp;egrave; &amp;eacute; &amp;ecirc; &amp;euml; &amp;igrave; &amp;iacute;
&amp;icirc; &amp;iuml; &amp;ntilde; &amp;ograve; &amp;oacute; &amp;ocirc;  
+
&amp;icirc; &amp;iuml; &amp;ntilde; &amp;ograve; &amp;oacute; &amp;ocirc;
&amp;oelig; &amp;otilde; &amp;ouml; &amp;oslash; &amp;ugrave; &amp;uacute;  
+
&amp;oelig; &amp;otilde; &amp;ouml; &amp;oslash; &amp;ugrave; &amp;uacute;
&amp;ucirc; &amp;uuml; &amp;yuml;
+
&amp;ucirc; &amp;uuml; &amp;yuml;</nowiki></pre></td>
</nowiki></pre>
+
</tr>
|- valign="top"
+
<tr valign=top>
|
+
<td>
'''Punctuation:'''
+
'''Punctuation:'''<br/>
<br/>
+
&iquest; &iexcl; &laquo; &raquo; &sect; &para;<br/>
¿ ¡ § <br/>
+
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &mdash;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;<br/>
+
</td>
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; « »<br/>
+
<td><pre><nowiki>
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;
+
&amp;iquest; &amp;iexcl; &amp;laquo; &amp;raquo; &amp;sect; &amp;para;
|
+
&amp;dagger; &amp;Dagger; &amp;bull; &amp;mdash;</nowiki></pre></td>
<br/>
+
</tr>
<pre><nowiki>
+
<tr valign="top">
&amp;iquest; &amp;iexcl; &amp;sect; &amp;para;
+
<td>
&amp;dagger; &amp;Dagger; &amp;bull; &amp;ndash; &amp;mdash;
+
'''Commercial symbols:'''<br/>
&amp;lsaquo; &amp;rsaquo; &amp;laquo; &amp;raquo;
+
&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen; <br/>
&amp;lsquo; &amp;rsquo; &amp;ldquo; &amp;rdquo;
+
&pound; &curren;</td>
</nowiki></pre>
+
<td><pre><nowiki>
|- valign="top"
+
&amp;trade; &amp;copy; &amp;reg; &amp;cent; &amp;euro; &amp;yen;
|
 
'''Commercial symbols:'''
 
<br/>
 
&trade; © ® ¢ &euro; ¥<br/>
 
£ ¤
 
|
 
<br/>
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
&amp;trade; &amp;copy; &amp;reg; &amp;cent; &amp;euro; &amp;yen;  
 
 
&amp;pound; &amp;curren;
 
&amp;pound; &amp;curren;
</nowiki></pre>
+
</nowiki></pre></td>
|- valign="top"
+
</tr>
|
+
<tr valign="top"><td>Subscript: x<sub>2</sub><br/>
'''Subscripts:'''
+
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or x&sup2;
<br/>
+
*The latter method of superscript can't be used in the most general context, but is preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.
''x''<sub>1</sub> ''x''<sub>2</sub> ''x''<sub>3</sub> or
 
<br/>
 
''x''&#8320; ''x''&#8321; ''x''&#8322; ''x''&#8323; ''x''&#8324;
 
<br/>
 
''x''&#8325; ''x''&#8326; ''x''&#8327; ''x''&#8328; ''x''&#8329;
 
 
 
'''Superscripts:'''
 
<br/>
 
''x''<sup>1</sup> ''x''<sup>2</sup> ''x''<sup>3</sup> or
 
<br/>
 
''x''&#8304; ''x''&sup1; ''x''&sup2; ''x''&sup3; ''x''&#8308;
 
<br/>
 
''x''&#8309; ''x''&#8310; ''x''&#8311; ''x''&#8312; ''x''&#8313;
 
 
 
*The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.
 
 
 
 
&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
 
&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
 
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
 
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
 
C&sup2; / J m.
 
C&sup2; / J m.
 
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]
 
|
 
<br/>
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
''x''<sub>1</sub> ''x''<sub>2</sub> ''x''<sub>3</sub> or
 
<br/>
 
''x''&amp;#8320; ''x''&amp;#8421; ''x''&amp;#8322; ''x''&amp;#8323; ''x''&amp;#8324;
 
<br/>
 
''x''&amp;#8325; ''x''&amp;#8326; ''x''&amp;#8327; ''x''&amp;#8328; ''x''&amp;#8329;
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
''x''<sup>1</sup> ''x''<sup>2</sup> ''x''<sup>3</sup> or
 
 
<br/>
 
<br/>
''x''&amp;#8304; ''x''&amp;sup1; ''x''&amp;sup2; ''x''&amp;sup3; ''x''&amp;#8308;
 
 
<br/>
 
<br/>
x&amp;#8309; x&amp;#8310; x&amp;#8311; x&amp;#8312; x&amp;#8313;
+
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m²]]
 
+
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>Subscript: x<sub>2</sub>
 +
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or x&amp;sup2;
 
&amp;epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
 
&amp;epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
 
8.85 &amp;times; 10<sup>&amp;minus;12</sup>
 
8.85 &amp;times; 10<sup>&amp;minus;12</sup>
 
C&amp;sup2; / J m.
 
C&amp;sup2; / J m.
  
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&amp;sup2;]]
+
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 ]]
</nowiki></pre>
+
</nowiki></pre></td>
|- valign="top"
+
</tr>
|
+
<tr valign="top"><td>'''Greek characters:''' <br/>
'''Greek characters:'''
+
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; <br/>
<br/>
+
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; <br/>
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;<br/>
+
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf; <br/>
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;<br/>
 
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;<br/>
 
 
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;<br/>
 
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;<br/>
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;<br/>
+
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi; <br/>
 
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;
 
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;
|
+
</td>
<br/>
+
<td><pre><nowiki>
<pre><nowiki>
+
&amp;alpha; &amp;beta; &amp;gamma; &amp;delta; &amp;epsilon; &amp;zeta;
&amp;alpha; &amp;beta; &amp;gamma; &amp;delta; &amp;epsilon; &amp;zeta;  
+
&amp;eta; &amp;theta; &amp;iota; &amp;kappa; &amp;lambda; &amp;mu; &amp;nu;
&amp;eta; &amp;theta; &amp;iota; &amp;kappa; &amp;lambda; &amp;mu; &amp;nu;  
+
&amp;xi; &amp;omicron; &amp;pi; &amp;rho; &amp;sigma; &amp;sigmaf;
&amp;xi; &amp;omicron; &amp;pi; &amp;rho; &amp;sigma; &amp;sigmaf;
 
 
&amp;tau; &amp;upsilon; &amp;phi; &amp;chi; &amp;psi; &amp;omega;
 
&amp;tau; &amp;upsilon; &amp;phi; &amp;chi; &amp;psi; &amp;omega;
&amp;Gamma; &amp;Delta; &amp;Theta; &amp;Lambda; &amp;Xi; &amp;Pi;  
+
&amp;Gamma; &amp;Delta; &amp;Theta; &amp;Lambda; &amp;Xi; &amp;Pi;
 
&amp;Sigma; &amp;Phi; &amp;Psi; &amp;Omega;
 
&amp;Sigma; &amp;Phi; &amp;Psi; &amp;Omega;
</nowiki></pre>
+
</nowiki></pre></td>
|- valign="top"
+
</tr>
|
+
<tr valign="top">
'''Mathematical characters:'''
+
<td>
<br/>
+
'''Math characters:''' <br/>
 
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;<br/>
 
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;<br/>
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;<br/>
+
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge; &rarr;<br/>
 
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;<br/>
 
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;<br/>
 
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;<br/>
 
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;<br/>
 
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;<br/>
 
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;<br/>
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;<br/>
+
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;<br/>
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;<br/>
+
&rarr; &harr;<br/>
* See also [[WikiProject Mathematics|WikiProject Mathematics]] and [[TeX]].
+
</td>
|
+
<td valign="middle"><pre><nowiki>
<br/>
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
 
&amp;int; &amp;sum; &amp;prod; &amp;radic; &amp;minus; &amp;plusmn; &amp;infin;
 
&amp;int; &amp;sum; &amp;prod; &amp;radic; &amp;minus; &amp;plusmn; &amp;infin;
&amp;asymp; &amp;prop; &amp;equiv; &amp;ne; &amp;le; &amp;ge;
+
&amp;asymp; &amp;prop; &amp;equiv; &amp;ne; &amp;le; &amp;ge; &amp;rarr;
 
&amp;times; &amp;middot; &amp;divide; &amp;part; &amp;prime; &amp;Prime;
 
&amp;times; &amp;middot; &amp;divide; &amp;part; &amp;prime; &amp;Prime;
 
&amp;nabla; &amp;permil; &amp;deg; &amp;there4; &amp;alefsym; &amp;oslash;
 
&amp;nabla; &amp;permil; &amp;deg; &amp;there4; &amp;alefsym; &amp;oslash;
 
&amp;isin; &amp;notin; &amp;cap; &amp;cup; &amp;sub; &amp;sup; &amp;sube; &amp;supe;
 
&amp;isin; &amp;notin; &amp;cap; &amp;cup; &amp;sub; &amp;sup; &amp;sube; &amp;supe;
&amp;not; &amp;and; &amp;or; &amp;exist; &amp;forall; &amp;rArr; &amp;lArr; &amp;dArr; &amp;uArr; &amp;hArr;
+
&amp;not; &amp;and; &amp;or; &amp;exist; &amp;forall; &amp;rArr; &amp;hArr;
&amp;rarr; &amp;darr; &amp;uarr; &amp;larr; &amp;harr;
+
&amp;rarr; &amp;harr;</nowiki></pre></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr valign="top"><td><i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0 true.
 +
*To space things out, use non-breaking spaces - <tt>&amp;nbsp;</tt>.
 +
*<tt>&amp;nbsp;</tt> also prevents line breaks in the middle of text, this is useful in formulas.
 +
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>
 +
<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;ge;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;0 true.
 +
</nowiki></pre></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>
 +
'''Complicated formulae:'''<br/>
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp;<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
 +
* See [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Editing mathematical formulae:TeX markup|TeX markup]]
 +
</td>
 +
<td><pre><nowiki>
 +
<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
|- valign="top"
+
</td>
|
+
</tr>
<math>\sin x + \ln y\,</math><br>
+
<tr>
sin ''x'' + ln ''y''
+
<td>
<!-- no space between roman "sin" and italic "x" -->
+
'''Suppressing interpretation of markup:'''<br/>
 
+
<nowiki>Link &rarr; (<i>to</i>) the [[FAQ]]</nowiki>
<math>\mathbf{x} = 0\,</math><br>
+
* Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
'''x''' = 0
+
* Shows all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags, instead of applying it.
 
+
* ''Does'' show special characters, and not the HTML character codes.
Ordinary text should use [[#emph|wiki markup for emphasis]], and should not use <code>&lt;i&gt;</code> or <code>&lt;b&gt;</code>.  However, mathematical formulas often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis.  Complex formulas should use [[Help:Formula|<code>&lt;math&gt;</code> markup]], and simple formulas may use <code>&lt;math&gt;</code>; or <code>&lt;i&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;b&gt;</code>; or <code><nowiki>''</nowiki></code> and <code><nowiki>'''</nowiki></code>. According to [[WikiProject Mathematics#Italicization and bolding|WikiProject Mathematics]], wiki markup is preferred over HTML markup like <code>&lt;i&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;b&gt;</code>.  In non-[[TeX]] mathematical notation, variables, but ''not'' digits and ''not'' punctuation, should usually be italicized, thus matching TeX style.  In some simple instances of TeX, seemingly superfluous spacing created by \, (a backslash followed by a comma) is sometimes needed for proper rendering.
+
</td>
|
+
<td>
<pre><nowiki>
+
<pre><nowiki><nowiki>Link &amp;rarr; (<i>to</i>)
<math>\sin x + \ln y\,</math>
+
the [[FAQ]]</nowiki></nowiki></pre>
sin ''x'' + ln ''y''
+
</td>
 
+
</tr>
<math>\mathbf{x} = 0</math>
+
<tr>
'''x''' = 0
+
<td>
</nowiki></pre>
+
'''Commenting page source:'''<br/>
|- valign="top"
+
''not shown in page''
|
+
* Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
'''Spacing in simple math formulas:'''
+
</td>
<br/>
+
<td>
Obviously, ''x''&sup2;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;0 is true when ''x'' is a real number.
+
<pre><nowiki><!-- comment here --></nowiki></pre>
*To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, use non-breaking spaces: <tt>&amp;nbsp;</tt>.
+
</td>
|
+
</tr>
<br/>
+
</table>
<pre><nowiki>
 
Obviously, ''x''&amp;sup2;&amp;nbsp;&amp;ge;&amp;nbsp;0 is true when ''x'' is a real number.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|- valign="top"
 
|
 
'''Complicated formulas:'''
 
<br/>
 
: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
 
* See [[Help:Formula]] for how to use <tt>&lt;math></tt>.
 
* A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.
 
|
 
<br/>
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|}
 
''(see also: [[Chess symbols in Unicode]])''
 
 
 
===No or limited formatting - showing exactly what is being typed===
 
 
 
A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them - what you see, is what you get!
 
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
 
|-
 
! style="width:8em" |
 
!What it looks like
 
!What you type
 
|-
 
|'''&lt;nowiki&gt; tags'''
 
|
 
<nowiki>
 
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
 
It reformats text by removing newlines    and multiple spaces.
 
It still interprets special characters: &rarr;
 
</nowiki>
 
|<pre><nowiki>
 
&lt;nowiki&gt;
 
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
 
It reformats text by removing newlines    and multiple spaces.
 
It still interprets special characters: &amp;rarr;
 
&lt;/nowiki&gt;
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|-
 
|'''&lt;pre&gt; tags'''
 
|
 
<pre>
 
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
 
It also doesn't    reformat text.
 
It still interprets special characters: &rarr;
 
</pre>
 
|<pre>&lt;pre&gt;<nowiki>
 
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
 
It also doesn't    reformat text.
 
It still interprets special characters: &amp;rarr;
 
</nowiki>&lt;/pre&gt;</pre>
 
|-
 
|'''Leading spaces'''
 
|
 
Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.
 
 
 
Putting a space at the beginning of each line
 
stops the text  from being reformatted. It still
 
interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and special
 
characters: &rarr;
 
|<pre><nowiki>
 
Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.
 
 
 
Putting a space at the beginning of each line
 
stops the text  from being reformatted. It still
 
interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and special
 
characters: &amp;rarr;
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
|}
 
 
 
=== Table of contents ===
 
<!-- ==== Placement of the Table of Contents (TOC) ==== -->
 
At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the TOC to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections).  Putting <nowiki>__TOC__</nowiki> anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header).  Putting <nowiki>__NOTOC__</nowiki> anywhere forces the TOC to disappear.  See also [[Section#Compact_TOC|compact TOC]] for alphabet and year headings.
 
<!--
 
THE TEXT BELOW IS COMMENTED OUT SINCE THE DESCRIBED TECHNIQUE
 
DOESN'T WORK AFTER UPGRADING TO MEDIAWIKI 1.5
 
 
 
====Keeping headings out of the Table of Contents====
 
If you want some subheadings to not appear in the Table of Contents, then make the following replacements.
 
 
 
Replace  <nowiki> == Header 2 == with <h2> Header 2 </h2> </nowiki>
 
 
 
Replace  <nowiki> === Header 3 === with <h3> Header 3 </h3> </nowiki>
 
 
 
And so forth.
 
 
 
For example, notice that the following header has the same font as the other subheaders to this "Tables" section, but the following header does not appear in the Table of Contents for this page.
 
 
 
<h4> This header has the h4 font, but is NOT in the Table of Contents (actually, it is)</h4>
 
  
This effect is obtained by the following line of code.
+
=== HTML Tables ===
  
<code><nowiki><h4> This header has the h4 font, but is NOT in the Table of Contents </h4></nowiki></code>
+
[[en:HTML|HTML]] tables can be quite useful as well. For details on how to use them and discussion about when they are appropriate, see [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Using tables]].
  
Note that when editing by section, this approach places the text between the tags in the subsequent section, not the previous section. To edit this text, click the edit link next to "Tables", not the one above.
+
==Templates==
-->
 
  
===Tables===
+
Some text on a page may correspond in the edit box to just a reference to another page, in the form <nowiki>{{</nowiki>''name''<nowiki>}}</nowiki>, referring to the page "Template:''name''". This is called a [[template]]. For changing that text, edit that other page. Sometimes a separate edit link is provided for this purpose. A convenient way to put such a link in a template in Wikipedia is with [[en:Template:ed]].
There are two ways to build tables:
 
*in special Wiki-markup (see [[Help:Table]])
 
*with the usual HTML elements: &lt;table&gt;, &lt;tr&gt;, &lt;td&gt; or &lt;th&gt;.
 
===References and citations===
 
* The markup <nowiki><ref>Put text to appear in note here</ref></nowiki> creates a numbered note
 
  
* A  collected citation list is created by <nowiki><references/></nowiki>
+
==Page protection==
  
* The markup <nowiki><ref name=Smith>Put text to appear in note here</ref></nowiki> gives a name to a note which can be marked up again by calling the name. No space can be used in the name.
+
In a few cases the link labeled "{{MediaWiki:Editthispage}}" is replaced by the text "{{MediaWiki:Protectedpage}}" (or equivalents in the language of the project). In that case the page can not be edited.
  
* Named references are called upon later in the text by <nowiki><ref name=Smith /></nowiki>
+
==Separating edits==
  
* Guidance on citation style is in [[Help:citation style]]
+
When moving or copying a piece of text within a page or from another page, and also making other edits, it is useful to separate these edits. This way the [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Diff|diff function]] can be usefully applied for checking these other edits.

Revision as of 10:32, 21 August 2007

From: Editing Overview.

Sections, paragraphs, lists and lines

What it looks like What you type

Start your sections with header lines:


New section

Subsection

Sub-subsection

== New section ==

=== Subsection ===

==== Sub-subsection ====

A single newline has no effect on the layout. These can be used to separate sentences within a paragraph. Some editors find that this aids editing and improves the diff function.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

A single [[en:newline|newline]]
has no effect on the layout.
These can be used to separate
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this 
aids editing and improves 
the ''diff'' function.

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.
You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.
You can break lines<br/>
without starting a new paragraph.
  • Lists are easy to do:
    • start every line with a star
      • more stars means deeper levels
* Lists are easy to do:
** start every line with a star
*** more stars means deeper levels
  1. Numbered lists are also good
    1. very organized
    2. easy to follow
# Numbered lists are also good
## very organized
## easy to follow
  • You can even do mixed lists
    1. and nest them
      • like this
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this
Definition list 
list of definitions
item 
the item's definition
; Definition list : list
of definitions
; item : the item's definition
A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

  • This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on Talk pages.
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
IF a line starts with a space THEN
  it will be formatted exactly
    as typed;
  in a fixed-width font;
  lines won't wrap;
ENDIF
this is useful for:
  * pasting preformatted text;
  * algorithm descriptions;
  * program source code
  * ASCII art;
  * chemical structures;

WARNING If you make it wide, you force the whole page to be wide and hence less readable. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.

 IF a line starts with a space THEN
   it will be formatted exactly
     as typed;
   in a fixed-width font;
   lines won't wrap;
 ENDIF
 this is useful for:
   * pasting preformatted text;
   * algorithm descriptions;
   * program source code
   * ASCII art;
   * chemical structures;
Centered text.
<center>Centered text.</center>
A horizontal dividing line: above

and below.

Mainly useful for separating threads on Talk pages.

A horizontal dividing line: above
----
and below. 

Links, URLs

What it looks like What you type
Sue is reading the video policy.
  • First letter of target is automatically capitalized.
  • Internally spaces are automatically represented as underscores (typing an underscore has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).

Thus the link above is to http://meta.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_policy, which is the page with the name "Video policy".

Sue is reading the [[video policy]].

Link to a section on a page, e.g.

List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco (links to non-existent sections aren't really broken, they are treated as links to the page, i.e. to the top)
[[List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco]].
Same target, different name: answers.

(This is called a piped link).

Same target, different name:
[[User:Larry Sanger|answers]]
Endings are blended into the link: testing, genes
Endings are blended
into the link: [[test]]ing, [[gene]]s

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Village pump.

The server fills in the part after the | when you save the page. Next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. A preview interprets the abbreviated form correctly, but does not expand it yet in the edit box. Press Save and again Edit, and you will see the expanded version. The same applies for the following feature.

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]]. 
Automatically hide namespace:
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].
When adding a comment to a Talk page,

you should sign it. You can do this by adding three tildes for your user name:

Karl Wick

or four for user name plus date/time:

Karl Wick 08:10 Oct 5, 2002 (UTC)
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it. You can do this by
adding three tildes for your user name:
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
The weather in London is a page that doesn't

exist yet.

  • You can create it by clicking on the link.
  • To create a new page:
    1. Create a link to it on some other page.
    2. Save that page.
    3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
  • Have a look at how to start a page guide and the naming conventions page for your project.
[[The weather in London]] is a page
that doesn't exist yet.

Redirect one article title to another by putting text like this in its first line.

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

A link to the page on the same subject in another language or, more generally, to a page on another wiki: fr:Wikipédia:Aide. For more info see MediaWiki User's Guide: Interwiki linking.

[[fr:Wikipédia:Aide]], [[:fr:Wikipédia:Aide]]
"What links here" and "Related changes" can be linked as:

Special:Whatlinkshere/Wikipedia:How to edit a page and Special:Recentchangeslinked/Wikipedia:How to edit a page

[[Special:Whatlinkshere/
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]] and
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
External link: Nupedia
External link:
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]
Or just give the URL: http://www.nupedia.com.
  • In the URL all symbols must be among: A-Z a-z 0-9 ._\/~%-+&#?!=()@ \x80-\xFF. If a URL contains a different character it should be converted; for example, ^ has to be written %5E (to be looked up in ASCII). A blank space can also be converted into an underscore.
Or just give the URL:
http://www.nupedia.com.

To link to books, you can use ISBN links. ISBN 0123456789X See MediaWiki User's Guide: ISBN links

ISBN 0123456789X

To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link.
Sound

[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]
Use links for dates, so everyone can set their own display order. Use Special:Preferences to change your own date display setting.
[[July 20]], [[1969]] , [[20 July]] [[1969]]
and [[1969]]-[[07-20]]
will all appear as 20 July 1969 if you set your date display preference to 1 January 2001.

Images

What it looks like What you type
A picture: Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia
  • Only images that have been uploaded to Wikibooks can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list
A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png]]

or, with alternate text (strongly encouraged)

[[Image:Wiki.png|Wikipedia 
- The Free Encyclopedia]] 

Web browsers render alternate text when not displaying an image -- for example, when the image isn't loaded, or in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud. See Alternate text for images for help on choosing alternate text.

Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: Image:Wiki.png

[[:Image:Wiki.png]]

To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
Image of a Tornado

[[media:Tornado.jpg|Image of a Tornado]]

Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasize, strongly, very strongly.

  • These are double and triple apostrophes, not double quotes.
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''',
'''''very strongly'''''.

You can also write italic and bold if the desired effect is a specific font style rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulae:

F = ma
  • However, the difference between these two methods is not very important for graphical browsers, and many people choose to ignore it.
You can also write <i>italic</i>
and <b>bold</b> if the desired effect is a 
specific font style rather than emphasis, as 
in mathematical formulas:
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b>
A typewriter font for technical terms.
A typewriter font for 
<tt>technical terms</tt>.
You can use small text for captions.
You can use <small>small text</small> 
for captions.
You can strike out deleted material

and underline new material.

You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

Umlauts and accents: (See MediaWiki User's Guide: Creating special characters)
è é ê ë ì í

À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

è é ê ë ì í

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

Punctuation:
¿ ¡ « » § ¶
† ‡ • —

&iquest; &iexcl; &laquo; &raquo; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &mdash;

Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥

£ ¤
&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;
Subscript: x2

Superscript: x2 or x²

  • The latter method of superscript can't be used in the most general context, but is preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.

1 hectare = 1 E4 m²

Subscript: x<sub>2</sub>
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or x&sup2;
&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m²]]
Greek characters:

α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho;  &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;

Math characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥ →
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge; &rarr;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr;
x2   ≥   0 true.
  • To space things out, use non-breaking spaces - &nbsp;.
  • &nbsp; also prevents line breaks in the middle of text, this is useful in formulas.
<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;&nbsp;0 true.

Complicated formulae:
  <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>

<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>

Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (<i>to</i>) the [[FAQ]]

  • Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
  • Shows all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags, instead of applying it.
  • Does show special characters, and not the HTML character codes.
<nowiki>Link &rarr; (<i>to</i>)
the [[FAQ]]</nowiki>

Commenting page source:
not shown in page

  • Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
<!-- comment here -->

HTML Tables

HTML tables can be quite useful as well. For details on how to use them and discussion about when they are appropriate, see MediaWiki User's Guide: Using tables.

Templates

Some text on a page may correspond in the edit box to just a reference to another page, in the form {{name}}, referring to the page "Template:name". This is called a template. For changing that text, edit that other page. Sometimes a separate edit link is provided for this purpose. A convenient way to put such a link in a template in Wikipedia is with en:Template:ed.

Page protection

In a few cases the link labeled "MediaWiki:Editthispage" is replaced by the text "Protected page" (or equivalents in the language of the project). In that case the page can not be edited.

Separating edits

When moving or copying a piece of text within a page or from another page, and also making other edits, it is useful to separate these edits. This way the diff function can be usefully applied for checking these other edits.